non-democratic socialism which produced totalitarianism or oligarchical
The crucial point is that democratic movements continue to arise inside labour unions despite the increasing density of union bureaucracy, thereby confirming Alvin Gouldner's 1955 observation that oligarchical
waves are often met by new democratic initiatives.
irretrievably slipped into an abyss of oligarchical
surrounding the system, tells itself what they think they wants to hear.
governments--for instance, Alabama's government between 1901 and 1946, when it was dominated by the "Big Mules" of local industry and the timberland owners--may tend to under-supply local public goods to protect their interests from taxation.
Dictatorships that rest primarily on the power of just one man are generally more vulnerable in the face of popular revolt than are oligarchical
systems where a broader network of elite interests has a stake in the system.
and increased the rewards for information concerning profanation of the Mysteries [as an oligarchical
The first stage involves the transition from a decaying democracy to an oligarchical
democracy; the second stage currently unfolding in Europe involves the transition from oligarchical
democracy to colonial-technocratic dictatorship.
Equally there have been recent calls for oligarchical
forms of global governance built around a relatively small group of major western states (as in the G8/G10) to be broadened to include key regional powers, especially in the interests of representational legitimacy.
To many, the oligarchical
power structure of the industry is confirmation of a market failure in which heavy-handed capitalists have used price gouging and predatory pricing techniques as means to expel competition.
Given Eliot's focus on Christian ethics, Surette considers this lapse an explicitly moral failure: "Even in 1939, Eliot refused to condemn fascism/nazism as a political doctrine totally antipathetic to Christian as well as liberal values on the spurious grounds that British oligarchical
democracy was equally culpable" (251).
73) Simon says, "[w]e are a country of democratic ideas and impulses, but it is strained through some very oligarchical