We as modern westerns descend primarily, though not exclusively, from a Republican tradition that is more directly relevant to the Punico-Phoenician tradition of Tyre and Carthage then the Greek system of politics with its dual obsession of oligarchical
rule and democracy.
However their contemporary, Alvin Gouldner, had persuasively argued the year before the publication of Union Democracy that "even as Michels himself saw, if oligarchical
waves repeatedly wash away the bridges of democracy, this eternal recurrence can happen only because men [and women] doggedly rebuild them after each inundation.
The Progressive era also inaugurated changes in the rules of politics that are especially relevant to the history of efforts to limit oligarchical
power in America.
Its political systems are unstable; its economies are more oligarchical
than liberal; territorial disputes are resolved by force; and its foreign-policy vectors point in different directions.
We can no longer dance around the need to level direct and devastating criticism of the oligarchical
and imperialistic interests being championed by Barack Obama.
Regardless of how much Putin says he wants to recreate an oligarchical
structure, he can't easily cut ties with the rest of the world.
It is worth seeing the effects of the Putin-style oligarchical
privatisation of council housing into social housing 'providers'.
A sociological study of the oligarchical
tendencies of modern democracy" Michels (1962) dealt with the Social Democratic Party of Germany in the early twentieth century, where he was a member.
De Leon examines different explanatory frameworks of the role political parties play, beginning with voter-centered approaches (Columbia, Michigan, and spatial theories and their permutations and cross-pollinations), and going on to party-centered ones: oligarchical
, functional and exclusive approaches (some of which were developed by the same thinkers; for example Weber is associated with several of these schools of thought, and, of course, as with the voter-centered approaches, there is plenty of room for different sub-versions and hybrids).
The students and protesters are calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Plamen Oresharski's technocratic government, renewed elections and an overhaul of alleged oligarchical
practices that have raised the ire of many across the country.
In his "iron law of oligarchy" thesis, Michels (104) argued that all organisations have a natural tendency to develop oligarchical
leadership and pursue conservative goals: over time, despite formal democratic practices, the organisation hires increasing numbers of staff; a growing distance develops between staff and, in this case, union members.
Can the oligarchical
, cocooned, defensive Catholic Church remain untouched by what is happening in the world and society?