In this approach, Gerota's fascia is suggested to be kept intact as working space is being created in the posterior pararenal fossa where perinephric fat tissue is kept outside the operative field
Surgical navigation is the intra-operative display of the operative field
with the location of a probe or instrument overlaid onto any image such as fluoroscopic data, an MRI, or CAT scan.
When a patient is evaluated before surgery, the attending surgeon would inscribe a unique identifying mark on the skin within the operative field
, preferably with the patient awake and alert, and with other individuals, such as family members, present.
Also, bags can tear or obstruct the view of the operative field
, and have been associated with rare reports of uterine damage.
Enhanced 3D, high-definition vision of operative field
with up to 10x magnification
For example, sometimes it is not possible to precisely localize the tip of an instrument in the operative field
relative to the target site shown on the CT image.
Surgeons will be able to truly feel the instruments as if their hands were in the operative field
We have found that we can zoom the image and reduce light to improve visualization and maximize the operative field
This restriction is attributable to (1) the confined operative field
, (2) instrumentation's limited ranges of motion, (3) a lack of three-dimensional imaging of the operative field
(depth of field), and (4) a lack of haptic (tactile) feedback.
Primary advantages, as reported, include improved control, a largely bloodless operative field
for improved visualization, precise osteotomies (cuts through bone), significant reductions in the occurrence of nerve impairment, and significant reductions in 'bad bone splits' that may require additional corrective surgery.
The retractor's design helps to protect the procedure area and promote a clean operative field
by capturing abdominal wall bleeding, reducing the risk of wound infection, and keeping the incision site moist.
Additional benefits include (1) three-dimensional viewing of the operative field
with superb depth perception attributable to the coaxial alignment of the eyes, hands, and tool-tip image, (2) motion scaling, and (3) tremor filtering.