optimism

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Does optimism exist at the group level or is the phenomenon created through individual perception?
When individuals within a group become lackadaisical, and demonstrate changes from an optimistic to a pessimistic attitude, or become social loafers (Karau & William 1993), a difference in the group's perceived overall, or generalised optimism may be noticed.
While there are no current measures of group optimism or the perception of optimism, group research areas that lend insight into group dynamics include charismatic leadership (Gardner & Avolio 1998), intra-group communication (Gladstien 1994, Campion, Papper & Medsker 1996), faith and belief in good performance (Lindsey, Brass & Thomas 1995), and values, perceptions and codes of conduct (Erez & Earley 1993).
However, no measurements for group optimism are yet developed.
The OPS and LOT measures have been used extensively in the stated fields of study, specifically for individual measurements of optimism or pessimism.
While individual members contribute their personal traits of optimism, or pessimism, to a group, the group itself collectively assimilates the traits and then portrays these traits.
It is expressed in Figure 1 that members of a group can contribute to individual levels of optimism or pessimism and perceive a level of optimism or pessimism.