Civil Disobedience

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Related to passive resistance: Passive aggressive

Civil Disobedience

A symbolic, non-violent violation of the law, done deliberately in protest against some form of perceived injustice. Mere dissent, protest, or disobedience of the law does not qualify. The act must be nonviolent, open and visible, illegal, performed for the moral purpose of protesting an injustice, and done with the expectation of being punished.

By peacefully and openly violating the law and submitting to punishment, those engaging in civil disobedience hope to draw attention to the law they hope to reform, the injustice they hope to stop, or the policy or practice they hope to end. By calling into question the justness, fairness, Equity, or propriety of the status quo, persons engaging in civil disobedience usually appeal to some form of higher law, whether it be the divine law of god, Natural Law, or some form of moral reasoning.

The philosophical underpinnings for civil disobedience can be found in New Testament writings which report on the teachings of Jesus. They also appear in works by Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, and Thomas Jefferson. In a famous essay entitled "Civil Disobedience," Henry David Thoreau claimed that the individual is "a higher and independent power" from which the state obtains its authority. As individuals, people must not wait for the government to recognize injustice and instigate reform, Thoreau said, because the machinery of government moves too slowly. If individuals have right on their side, then they must do right by trying to peacefully and openly change society.Civil disobedience has been extensively employed around the world by nationalist movements (e.g., mohandas gandhi used civil disobedience to protest against British colonial rule in India), Civil Rights leaders (e.g., martin luther king jr. used civil disobedience to protest against racial Segregation laws in the United States), and anti-war protestors (e.g., Muhammad Ali used civil disobedience to protest U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War), among others.

Cross-references

Civil Rights Movement; Protest.

References in periodicals archive ?
The passive resistance in the model w as represented as the applied knee torque necessary to overcome the maximum pressure differential across the opened valve induced by a maximum knee angular velocity of 330 [degrees]/s, which is characteristic of nondisabled gait with a trunkhip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis (with all joint constraints freed in the sagittal plane).
57) In this storyline, the history of passive resistance begins with indigenous actors in Aotearoa, spreads to Ireland and then on to India before making its way across to the United States.
All the others made mistakes: the managers for their passive resistance, the inspections for not being able to overcome the resistance, the hairdresser for keeping the lawyer, the journalists for exaggerating, and the editors-in-chief for having lunch with Branko that same day, the founders of some smaller firms .
Durban has historic significance because Mahatma Gandhi lived in Durban from 1893 to 1914 and first experimented with non-violence and passive resistance based on truth as potent and novel tool of struggle against apartheid and imperialism in South Africa.
The Israeli defense minister, Ehud Barak, says that Israel's leaders are aware of the possibility that the military interception of a flotilla bound for Gaza in late May could turn violent, although lower level military officials had said at the time that the commandos were expecting only passive resistance.
One remarkable man defeated the mightiest empire on Earth and freed 350 million people with one unbelievable plan: passive resistance.
We had decided to show passive resistance on the boat.
The Belfast Nobel peace prizewinner added those on board would offer only passive resistance if they we re attacked.
Ayalon said those onboard the flotilla announced that they would make passive resistance but ambushed the Israeli soldiers when they got on board.
The virus of passive resistance to unspeakable owners is spreading.
I was dizzy with confusion over her bizarre logic and weird understanding of King's doctrine of passive resistance.
Sandra Schneiders (NCR, March 20) encouraged women religious to assume a stance of caution and passive resistance, convinced that no genuine dialogue would take place or mutual understanding and acceptance as a result.