By constructing strains with altered levels of phenotypic variation
, the importance of noisy gene expression in S.
Genetic mapping studies are used to identify genes that control the observed phenotypic variation
in the field.
Studies of fruit flies in a wild population have shown that most of their traits have relatively little phenotypic variation
, even though the population contains a remarkable amount of unexpressed genetic variation.
Of course, a combination of several of these causes is usually responsible for quantitative phenotypic variation
However, a phenotypic adaptive change in phytophagous insects may be expected whenever phenotypic variations
in traits related to host use are heritable and linked to fitness, and when phenotypic plasticity is negligible (Via & Lande 1985; Scheiner 1993).
We therefore explored sequence differences in potential genetic clusters of this phenotypic variation
and also investigated the functional differences between the 2 phenotypes.
Molar intercuspal dimensions: genetic input to phenotypic variation
Two possible hypotheses were considered: (1) hybridization had occurred between Pacific and Californian abalone and (2) phenotypic variation
Third is use of environmental stressors as a probe(s) to identify phenotypic variation
in humans and animal models of disease to inform genetic analyses of disease susceptibility: 1) conduct of genome-wide association studies to study gene, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in well characterized cases of environmentally induced disease; 2) identification and assessment of the functional relevance of SNPs and haplotypes associated with environmentally induced disease and the mechanistic consequences of those variations at the molecular and cellular levels.
Cells, Embryos and Evolution: Toward a Cellular and Developmental Understanding of Phenotypic Variation
and Evolutionary Adaptability (Malden: Blackwell Science, 1997).
The toads in that area are geographically isolated from other toads and might have unique genetic and phenotypic variation
, according to the Federal Register.
Chapter 3 deals with the levels of genetic variation, as related to phenotypic variation
and relatedness in Shorea leprosula, which are examined in three representative dipterocarp forest sites in East Kalimantan.