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Transnasal videostroboscopy revealed incomplete glottic closure on phonation and a vertical vocal fold height mismatch.
Findings on acoustic analysis (figure 1) remained within normal limits throughout the study, but speech aerodynamic analysis (figure 2) showed that patient 3's mean maximum phonation time (figure 2, A) decreased from more than 20 seconds after the lower-concentration challenge to 8 seconds following the highest-concentration challenge.
Together, these data from our primate cousins support the idea that the origins of speech might be found in an evolutionary combination of "traditional" phonation (sounds produced by the vocal cords, in the larynx) with rapid, learned movements of the vocal tract, which have stronger similarities to primate facial signals than to their innate calls.
One needs to look at how phonation or audition works physiologically and then develop a model of linguistics based on that information.
Revised and updated throughout, coverage includes an historical overview of voice disorders; the anatomy and physiology of voice production--with new artwork to accompany descriptions of respiration, phonation, and resonance, and expanded discussion of vocal fold histology and DNA microarray gene expression; analysis of the etiologies of voice disorders; the pathologies of the laryngeal mechanism; the objectives and procedures of a systematic diagnostic voice evaluation; voice therapy approaches; clinical management of voice professionals; and rehabilitation of the laryngectomized patient.
Not only is the maximum phonation time shorter, but also the number of syllables produced per phrase is far less in esophageal speakers (5) .
The structure of some call types suggests phonation during successive expirations and inspirations within calls, as in Cassin's and Crested auklets.
He produces--in a thespian sense--his "nativity" linguistically while inside still hearing and feeling the confusingly plural rustle of idioms, multiple and shaky pronunciations, phonetic dilemmas and phonation challenges.
Vocal and breathing exercises have been reported to increase breath support for sustained phonation (Baker & Tamplin, 2006; Kennelly, Hamilton, & Cross, 2001) and the use of rhythmic speech cueing has been reported to improve rate of speech and speech intelligibility (Hurt-Thaut & Johnson, 2003).
However, in some cases a delay in the surgical treatment may cause significant consequences for the patient, such as retention of the primary teeth, aesthetic affects, difficulties in mastication and/or phonation and possibly psychological problems [Bittencourt et al.
Both restriction of the breath cross-section and excessively high consumption of air during phonation may produce a subjective sensation of unspecific respiratory complaints.
KT also has a tone system, based partially on the melodic properties of vowels and partially on vowel phonation type.