RESULTS: We showed that fluorescent polystyrene particles with diameter up to 240 nm were taken up by the placenta and were able to cross the placental barrier without affecting the viability of the placental explant.
In the present study we used this model to investigate whether nanoparticles can cross the placental barrier and whether this process is size dependent.
The main findings of this study are that PS beads up to a diameter of 240 nm were taken up by the placenta and, further, were able to cross the placental barrier without affecting the viability of the explant.
Although scientists know that cocaine can penetrate the placental barrier
, they have had difficulty measuring the precise amounts that get through.
2003) predicted that PFOA bound to maternal blood protein may not be able to cross the placental barrier.
Like polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PFOS may be able to cross the placental barrier to enter fetal circulation (Covaci et al.
The negligible amotints of Cd in neonatal liver provide direct evidence that Cd does not cross the human placental barrier
, and hence the fetus seems to be well protected from Cd exposure in utero.
BPA orally administered to maternal rats immediately appeared in their blood and was transferred to the fetuses (27), suggesting that BPA easily passes through the placental barrier
, unlike sex hormones such as estrogen.
Most maternally administered chemicals have the potential to cross the placental barrier
, and the question is not whether a chemical crosses the placenta, but the rate at which it does so.