Levels of plasma PAI-1 in placental insufficiency
are therefore downstream of competing molecular regulatory mechanisms related to hypoxia.
Morphological and functional changes in the fetoplacental complex in case of placental insufficiency
Placental calcification is associated with a 40-fold increase in the incidence of IUGR, (intrauterine growth restriction), which is also a consequence of placental insufficiency
Some studies have been conducted to develop a screening tool for detection of placental insufficiency
to predict SGA including two-(2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sonographic measurements of placental volume and uterine artery Doppler (UAD) indices .
Common animal models of fetal malnutrition include placental insufficiency
, food restriction, protein restriction, micronutrient deficiency, and glucocorticoid exposure.
The concept that placental insufficiency
produces a brachial plexus injury by oxygen deprivation has not been supported by further reports.
It is known that as pregnancy extends post-term, the incidence of placental insufficiency
and foetal postmaturity (dysmaturity) increases rapidly as a consequence of reduced respiratory and nutritive placental function (27).
On the other hand, possible efficient therapeutic options for overcoming or preventing placental insufficiency
and other treatments for this entity must be evaluated.
The Australasian Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy conclude that low-dose aspirin for prevention of preeclampsia is reasonable for the following conditions: 1) prior fetal loss after first trimester due to placental insufficiency
or severe fetal growth retardation, and 2) women with severe early onset preeclampsia in previous pregnancy necessitating delivery <32 weeks gestation.
Recording the medical cause of death as placental insufficiency
, Cardiff and Vale coroner Mary Hassell told Emma: 'During this inquest, those around you have described you as caring, a mother bird, somebody who looks after everybody and who they can turn to for advice.
Gagnon R, Placental insufficiency
and its consequences.