was obtained which revealed a sterile exudative process with pH: 7.
The diagnosis of TB in the absence of direct microbiological proof was based on a high clinical probability combined with radiological evidence (n=14), pleural fluid
analysis alone (n=5), CSF analysis (n=7) or histological findings (n=1).
Typical findings of posteriorly layering pleural fluid
include a subtle gradient of opacity in the lower chest, blunting of the lateral sulci, loss of a perceptible diaphragm, and loss of vascular marking below the diaphragm.
However, as routine hospital procedure, several hundred pleural fluid
and CSF samples were sent to bacteriologists in Lisbon for further investigation (serotyping, PCR, some culture and susceptibility confirmation).
Analysis of pleural fluid
aspirates should include the following: Basic * Stains for AFB, TB culture * Bacterial MCS * Cytology * Differential cell count * ADA * LDH * Protein Additional * Albumin * Glucose * IFN-[gamma] * Fungal culture * Lipid analysis * Haematocrit * Amylase * Tumour markers * Complement C4 level
Drainage of milky-white pleural fluid
suggests chylothorax that can be confirmed by pleural fluid
A diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia was made with an extensive ground glass appearance and bilateral pleural fluid
(Picture 1) on thoracic computarized tomography (CT).
The pleural fluid
was hemorrhagic and biochemical examination showed that it was exudate (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]: 2386 U/L, albumin: 2.
However, one-third of the patients may have only pleural fluid
A sample of the pleural fluid
had a total protein concentration of 38 g/L and a white blood cell count of 20.
Percutaneous drainage of the pleural fluid
was helpful in excluding infection and malignancy, but not in establishing the diagnosis of underlying etiology.
A segment from parietal pleura was sent for culture and pleural fluid
was also sent for culture and biochemical analysis.