Poison

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Poison

Any substance dangerous to living organisms that if applied internally or externally, destroy the action of vital functions or prevent the Continuance of life.

Economic poisons are those substances that are used to control insects, weeds, fungi, bacteria, rodents, predatory animals, or other pests. Economic poisons are useful to society but are still dangerous.

The way a poison is controlled depends on its potential for harm, its usefulness, and the reasons for its use. The law has a right and a duty pursuant to the Police Power of a state to control substances that can do great harm.

In the past, an individual who was harmed by a poison that had been handled in a careless manner could institute a lawsuit for damages against the person who had mishandled the chemical. As time went on, state statutes prescribed the circumstances under which someone was legally liable for injuries caused by a poison. For example, a sale to anyone under sixteen years of age was unlawful, and a seller was required to ensure that the buyer understood that the chemical was poisonous. It was not unusual for all poisons, drugs, and narcotics to be covered by the same statutory scheme.

Specialized statutes currently regulate poisons. Pesticides must be registered with the federal government, and those denied registration cannot be used. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a number of regulations governing the use of approved pesticides. Federal law also prohibits unauthorized adulteration of any product with a poisonous substance and requires clear labeling for anything sold with a poisonous ingredient. It might not be sufficient to list all the chemicals in a container or even to put the word POISON on the label. The manufacturer should also warn of the injuries that are likely to occur and the conditions under which the poison will cause harm. Stricter standards are applied to household products than to poisonous products intended to be used in a factory, on a farm, or by a specially trained person. Poisonous food products are banned. Under other federal regulations, pesticide residues on foods are prohibited above certain low tolerance levels.

Certain provisions under federal law seek to protect children from poisoning. Special packaging is required for some household products so that a child will not mistake them for food or will not be able to open containers. Federal funds are available for local programs to reduce or eliminate the danger of poisoning from lead-based paint. Under the Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C.A. § 1261 et seq.), toys containing poisonous substances can be banned or subjected to recall.

See: contaminate, degenerate, infect, pervert, pollute, taint, virulent, vitiate

POISON, crim. law. Those substances which, when applied to the organs of the body, are capable of altering or destroying, in a majority of cases, some or all of the functions necessary to life, are called poisons. 3 Fodere, Traite de Med. Leg. 449; Guy, Med. Jur. 520.
     2. When administered with a felonious intent of committing, murder, if. death ensues, it is murder the most detestable, because it can of all others, be least prevented by manhood or forethought. It is a deliberate act necessarily implying malice. 1 Russ. Cr. 429. For the signs which indicate poisoning, vide 2 Beck's Med. Jurisp. ch. 16, p. 236, et seq.; Cooper's Med. Jurisp. 47; Ryan's Med. Jurisp. ch. 15, p. 202, et seq.; Traill, Med. Jur. 109.

References in periodicals archive ?
The staff at the Illinois Poison Center were having trouble handling the volume of calls over 80,000 received every year.
GAO recommended that FDA explore options to obtain poison center data, if determined to be useful: collect information on how it uses AERs; provide more information to the public about AERs; and establish a time frame to finalize guidance related to GAO's 2009 recommendations.
My experience and knowledge of what the poison center had to offer was limited at best.
Data obtained from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center were limited to opiate exposures only.
Visit the Fletcher Allen Health Care or the Northern New England Poison Center websites for kit contact information and locations and the schedule for train-the-trainer programs in early 2009.
by Lisa Booze, PharmD, CSPI, Maryland Poison Center
Methods: Retrospective case series of Micrurus tener exposures reported to the Texas Poison Center Network from 2000 to 2004.
AP) -- Directors of the Alabama Fire College voted to sever ties with the nonprofit Alabama Poison Center, leaving the center's future up in the air amid questions of financial improprieties.
Dexomethorphan at high doses allows users to feel high, dizzy and so on," said Eric Schuetz, a certified specialist at the Maryland Poison Center.
director of the Indiana Poison Center, states, "Most poison control centers are getting away from using ipecac or activated charcoal because no good data show it affects the outcome, and [therefore] we probably shouldn't be doing it.
Multivitamins containing iron--even chewable supplements for children--can be toxic to youngsters, advises Daniel Keyes, associate professor of surgery at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and director of the North Texas Poison Center.