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Prenatal stress and long-term consequences: Implications of glucocorticoid hormones.
The researchers assessed prenatal stress hormones levels to form an experimental group and then tested the children at 17 months with a cognitive assessment and the Ainsworth 'Strange Situation' test, which judges child-rearing quality and categorises mother-baby pairs as either showing secure or insecure attachment.
The impact of prenatal stress, fetal alcohol exposure, or both on development: Perspectives from a primate model.
King and her group believe that much of the effect of maternal prenatal stress on an offspring's cognition and emotional development is a result of direct effects on the fetal brain.
Research in our lab has shown that prenatal stress, from restraint and stress hormone injection of sows, caused offspring to have increased plasma cortisol levels in response to stress and less ability to heal a wound when subjected to stress.
Higher prenatal stress was related to increased production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor--alpha, for example, following microbial (CpG, PIC) stimuli.
He also demonstrates quick fixes to common prenatal aches and pains such as lower back and sciatica pain, leg cramps and heartburn, and overall prenatal stress.
In the following section, we briefly summarize some key studies on the effects of environmental enrichment, postnatal stress, and prenatal stress.
The association between prenatal stress and infant birthweight and gestational age at birth: A prospective investigation.
Prenatal stress, particularly pre-eclampsia and growth restriction, seems to be a significant factor for developing major depressive disorder and increased risk for cardiovascular disease in later life, a combination that affects women more than men (Jill Goldstein, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA ).
While many large-scale studies have observed that prenatal stress may influence child development, our particular study sheds some light on the 'how,'" O'Connor said.