The source of the isolated H5N1 is unknown, but our 8-month prospective surveillance
program showed that it was recently introduced into this infected flock.
The sensitivity and positive predictive value of original prospective surveillance, screening by antimicrobial drug intervals, screening by diagnosis codes, and combinations of these were estimated by using the known sampling fractions to extrapolate to the source population.
In addition to routine prospective surveillance as described, 189 451 charts per procedure type were reviewed at each hospital.
The sensitivities of routine prospective surveillance (79%) and antimicrobial drug exposure screening (80%) were essentially equal and both substantially exceeded that of ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes (61%) (Table 3).
During October 7-12, prospective surveillance identified an additional five patients with fever and severe respiratory disease who died or were admitted to an ICU in one of the 19 hospitals under surveillance (Table).
Of the 14 cases of interest detected through hospital-based retrospective or prospective surveillance, 4 (29%) were fatal.
Prospective surveillance focused on the period beginning November 21, 2001, and included hospital admissions, emergency department visits, and private physician reports.
After November 26, ongoing prospective surveillance for deaths referred to the medical examiner was assumed by CDPH, with a particular focus on deaths in the town where the index patient resided and the eight surrounding towns.
Sensitivity of methods to identify cases of unexplained deaths and critical illnesses of possible infectious etiology, including the prospective surveillance
conducted during this project and retrospective record reviews California Oregon Connecticut Minnesota (a) Sensitivity of 38 72 100 100 prospective surveillance
for unexplained deaths (%) Proportion of 63 100 25 83 all unexplained deaths identified retrospectively through death record review (%) Sensitivity of 25 13 73 -- prospective surveillance
for critical illnesses (%) Proportion of 75 81 41 -- critical illnesses identified retrospectively by hospital discharge data review (%) (a) Minnesota did not review hospital discharge records.
If regular prospective surveillance
and environmental cultures are undertaken and low levels ([is less than] [10.
In general, infection control in the United States is less stringent than in Canada and in some European countries, where identification of known carriers, prospective surveillance
of patients and hospital workers, and use of nasal mupirocin have helped control drug-resistant S.