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Being the basic method for characterizing oil shale and evaluating its quality, proximate analysis mainly involves the determination of water, ash and volatile contents using the testing method described in "Proximate analysis of coal" (GB/T212-2008) [44].
The mass of volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash determined by proximate analysis were expressed as percentage of a moisture-free mass (Table 6).
The results of proximate analysis of corncob silage fermented with various amounts of digested chicken feather are presented in Table 1.
Notes: RCG=Reed Canary grass, H=Timothy hay, SW=Switchgrass, S=Spruce and P=Pine Table 2: Heating value, ultimate and proximate analysis of individual and blended biomass.
The technique Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS 5000 model, Foss Tecator, Sweden) was used for proximate analysis of feed ingredients and fish.
To determine the rank of coal, laboratory tests such as proximate analysis (moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash), ultimate analysis (elemental composition of organic fraction on weight percent basis; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur), heating value, hard groove grindability index (HGI) and petrographic analysis were carried out.
Proximate analysis has relied on well-established laboratory methods that are generally accurate and reliable, but because each component requires a specific assay and often multiple steps, a full analysis is time-consuming and costly.
Proximate analysis of the solid waste Proximate analysis Solid (this study) Horse manure (a) Moisture content (%) 15.
Proximate analysis: The proximate analysis expressed in percentages, showed the moisture, ash, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents in leaves of A.