Past research on punitiveness
offers a few possible measures for local variation, including regionally variant cultures of honor; (117) political party affiliation and measures of empathy; (118) conservative values among a given jurisdiction and the proportion of Republican seats in the jurisdiction's corresponding legislature; (119) and religiosity.
among college students: A comparison of criminal justice majors with other majors.
Recent empirical work suggests that (1) popular (not elite) punitiveness
closely tracks crime rates, and (2) incarceration growth tracks these popular political attitudes.
This included the schemata of abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation, defectiveness, failure, dependence, vulnerability, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient sell-control, approval-seeking, negativity/pessimism, and punitiveness
Consequently, the condemnation of leniency in criminal law has been a significant contributing factor to the United States' distressing ascension to the pinnacle of world punitiveness
1988) 'Public punitiveness
and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian surveys'.
A variety of studies have examined students' attitudes regarding punitiveness
(Courtright and Mackey, 2004; Courtright, Mackey and Packard.
Attainder Clause could dissolve the thorny issue of punitiveness
See also Sara Sun Beale, The News Media's Influence on Criminal Justice Policy: How Market-Driven News Promotes Punitiveness
, 48 WM.
As a history of legislative punitiveness
(179) suggests, a number of factors often combine to exclude offenders from the political process.
Harsh immigration law reforms enacted by the 104th Congress in 1996 prompted a wide-scale discussion among immigration law scholars of the increasing punitiveness
or "criminalization" of immigration law.
All examples point at a heightened level of punitiveness
and restraint, which Cusac associates with the better known increase in incarceration rates since the 1970s.