Table 2 reports both the p-values of the F-distribution for ANOVA and for the Friedman rank sum test
for cytokine mRNA levels, obtained using the standard statistical package R (R Development Core Team, 2010).
Although we did not measure territory size, polygynous males averaged 110 [+ or -] 18 m (11 = 9) between concurrently active nests of different females compared to consecutive re-nests of other color-banded pewees which averaged 66 [+ or -] 5 m (n = 33) (Wilcoxon rank sum test
P = 0.
harrisii (individual size class results described later; for all size classes, Wilcoxon's rank sum test
, P < 0.
There was no statistically significant difference between PCT levels in the two groups (Wilcoxon rank sum test
We conducted four separate signed rank sum tests
for rural and urban members (eight total tests) by examining the following geographic placement and measurement technique combinations:
11) Independent two-sample t-tests, Wilcoxon rank sum tests
and two-sample chi-square tests were performed to compare means, medians, and proportions, respectively.
Due to the small sample size and apparent non-normality of many of the response variables, all biological measures were tested using the one-sample exact Wilcoxon rank sum test
under the null hypothesis that no change occurred over the time period.
The Wilcoxon rank sum test
 gives us a measure for the statistical significance of the differences between the groups of incipits.
A one-tailed Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test
was performed at a 5% level of significance.
Serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), BUN/Cr ratio, and urine output (UOP) were measured/calculated and mean values obtained during therapy were compared with values obtained just before treatment using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
Finally, the Mann -Whitney rank sum test
was used to compare differences in the parameters of Pycnogenol versus Venostatin.
Next the student evaluation ratings are tested for statistical significance by computing the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
for differences of two medians.