ratification


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Related to ratification: Ratification of treaties, Agency by Ratification

Ratification

The confirmation or adoption of an act that has already been performed.

A principal can, for example, ratify something that has been done on his or her behalf by another individual who assumed the authority to act in the capacity of an agent. In addition, proposed amendments to the U.S. Constitution must be ratified by three-quarters of the state legislatures or by conventions in three-quarters of the states.

Cross-references

Constitutional Amendment.

ratification

n. confirmation of an action which was not pre-approved and may not have been authorized, usually by a principal (employer) who adopts the acts of his/her agent (employee) (See: principal, agent)

ratification

noun acceptance, acknowledgment, approbation, approval, assent, certification, confirmation, consent, corroboration, endorsement, sanction, stamp of approval, substantiation, validation
Associated concepts: implied ratification, ratification of a contract, ratification of unauthorized acts
Foreign phrases: Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur.Ratification is equivalent to an express command. Omnis ratihabitio retrotrahitur et mandato priori aequiparatur. Every ratification relates back and is taken to be the equal of prior authority. In maleficio, ratihabitio mandato commaratur. In tort, a ratification is regarded as a command.
See also: acceptance, acknowledgment, adoption, affirmance, affirmation, approval, assent, certification, charter, confirmation, consent, corroboration, indorsement, jurat, legalization, permission, proof, sanction, stamp, subscription, support

ratification

affirmation of a previous and unauthorized Act; ratification has the effect of putting the Act in the same position as if it had been originally authorized. For example, the confirmation or ratification by a principal of an unauthorized contract entered into by his agent.

RATIFICATION, contracts. An agreement to adopt an act performed by another for us.
     2. Ratifications are either empress or implied. The former are made in express and direct terms of assent; the latter are such as the law presumes from the acts of the principal; as, if Peter buy goods for James, and the latter, knowing the fact, receive them and apply them to his own use. By ratifying a contract a man adopts the agency, altogether, as well what is detrimental as that which is for his benefit. 2 Str. R. 859; 1 Atk. 128; 4 T. R. 211; 7 East, R. 164; 16 M. R. 105; 1 Ves. 509 Smith on Mer. L. 60; Story, Ag. Sec. 250 9 B. & Cr. 59.
     3. As a general rule, the principal has the right to elect whether he will adopt the unauthorized act or not. But having once ratified the act, upon a full knowledge of all the material circumstances, the ratification cannot be revoked or recalled, and the principal becomes bound as if he had originally authorized the act. Story, Ag. Sec. 250; Paley, Ag. by Lloyd, 171; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 197.
     4. The ratification of a lawful contract has a retrospective effect, and binds the principal from its date, and not only from the time of the ratification, for the ratification is equivalent to an original authority, according to the maxim, that omnis ratihabitio mandate aeguiparatur. Poth. Ob. n. 75; Ld. Raym. 930; Com. 450; 5 Burr. 2727; 2 H. Bl. 623; 1 B. & P. 316; 13 John.; R. 367; 2 John. Cas. 424; 2 Mass. R. 106.
     5. Such ratification will, in general, relieve the agent from all responsibility on the contract, when be would otherwise have been liable. 2 Brod. & Bing. 452. See 16 Mass. R. 461; 8 Wend. R. 494; 10 Wend. R. 399; Story, Ag. Sec. 251. Vide Assent, and Ayl. Pand. *386; 18 Vin. Ab. 156; 1 Liv. on, Ag. c. 2, Sec. 4, p. 44, 47; Story on Ag. Sec. 239; 3 Chit. Com. L. 197; Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 324; Smith on Mer. L. 47, 60; 2 John. Cas. 424; 13 Mass. R. 178; Id. 391; Id. 379; 6 Pick. R. 198; 1 Bro. Ch. R. 101, note; S. C. Ambl. R. 770; 1 Pet. C. C. R. 72; Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.
     6. An infant is not liable on his contracts; but if, after coming of age, he ratify the contract by an actual or express declaration, he will be bound to perform it, as if it had been made after he attained full age. The ratification must be voluntary, deliberate, and intelligent, and the party must know that without it, he would not be bound. 11 S. & R. 305, 311; 3 Penn. St. R. 428. See 12 Conn. 551, 556; 10 Mass. 137,140; 14 Mass. 457; 4 Wend. 403, 405. But a confirmation or ratification of a contract, may be implied from acts of the infant after he becomes of age; as by enjoying or claiming a benefit under a contract be might have wholly rescinded; 1 Pick. 221, 22 3; and an infant partner will be liable for the contracts of the firm, or at least such as were known to him, if he, after becoming of age, confirm the contract of partnership by transacting business of the firm, receiving profits, and the like. 2 Hill. So. Car. Rep. 479; 1 B. Moore, 289.

References in periodicals archive ?
Following a letter from Vice-President Dombrovskis and Commissioner Hill this summer and numerous reminders at the level of the Ecofin Council, Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker wrote to the remaining Member States which had not yet ratified on 24 November, urging them to complete the ratification procedures.
Endorsing the ratification of a memorandum of co-operation in youth policy between the governments of Qatar and the Kyrgyz Republic.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a summary requested the Prime Minister to forward the Instrument of Ratification for President's approval and affixation of his green seal.
The Cabinet of Pakistan had accorded its approval to ratification of these Protocols on 31 October 2012.
The DFA, on the other hand, will have to deposit the instrument of ratification with the ILO Director General in Geneva.
We welcome this development and we hope the Senate will concur in its ratification," she added.
With its ratification, Indonesia confirmed its commitment to the objective
The research will also examine other relevant electronic or postal voting experiences in the community and explore other ways in which the ratification processes could be enhanced.
The administration of President Barack Obama will submit a new National Intelligence Estimate providing technical supporting evidence for ratification to the Senate soon while the National Academies of Science will publish an analytical study report supporting ratification in spring, they said.
The ratification, together with a resolution promoting Serbian EU integration, was passed with 612 votes in favor and 38 votes against.
Spokesperson to the President, Farhatullah Babar said that two important covenants were signed during the first weeks of the present government on April 17, 2008 and were awaiting ratification by cabinet and signatures on the instrument of ratification by president.
The two covenants were signed on April 17, 2008, and were awaiting ratification by the cabinet and signatures on the instrument of ratification by the president.