ratify

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ratify

v. to confirm and adopt the act of another even though it was not approved beforehand. Example: An employee for Holsinger's Hardware orders carpentry equipment from Phillips Screws and Nails although the employee was not authorized to buy anything. The president of Holsinger's ratifies the deal when Phillips delivers the order. A person under the legal age who makes a contract, may ratify the contract when he/she reaches majority (usually 18) or may refuse to honor it without obligation.

ratify

verb accept, accredit, acknowledge, affirm, agree to, approve, assent, assure, attest, authenticate, back, bear out, buttress, certify, circumstantiate, concur, confirm, consent, corroborate, countenance, countersign, endorse, establish, guarantee, indorse, insure, make valid, pass, sanction, seal, sign, subscribe, substantiate, support, sustain, uphold, validate, verify, warrant
Associated concepts: estoppel, express ratification, principal and agent
See also: accept, accredit, acknowledge, adduce, affirm, agree, approve, assent, attest, bear, bestow, certify, comply, concur, confirm, consent, corroborate, cosign, countenance, countersign, embrace, endorse, fix, indorse, pass, recommend, respond, sanction, seal, sign, subscribe, substantiate, support, sustain, uphold, validate
References in periodicals archive ?
Nelson certainly does believe that there were disagreements among the framers and ratifiers of the Fourteenth Amendment, but these disagreements are about purposes and aims.
We might also know what Madison, Hamilton, and the other framers and ratifiers intended in adopting it.
175) It may be the case that framers and ratifiers leave text deliberately vague in order to leave a larger role for construction; however, that does not mean that their intent is fictive or without substance.
E]xactly the same" is a very high standard, but there may be a significant amount of evidence as to what the group of Framers or ratifiers thought the words meant when they were voting on them.
See William Crosskey, Politics and the Constitution in the History of the United States 5 (1953) (explaining the need to build a "specialized dictionary" of word usages from the time of the ratifiers to understand the Constitution).
The fourth wave of ratifications (1998 to 2007) extended to twenty-one ratifiers.
5) In interpreting the Michigan Constitution, we believe that we "must give meaning to the text as it was understood by its ratifiers.
The problem of collective intentionalism or the so-called summing problem argues that it is impossible to discern what multiple founders or ratifiers intended when they approved the constitutional text.
According to Sunstein, "if we believe that the meaning of the Constitution is settled by the original understanding of the ratifiers, then the people themselves are probably ill-equipped to uncover that meaning, and judges should pay little or no attention to the public desires.
Meese focused on the intent of the drafters; (39) Berger initially concurred, (40) but later shifted his focus to the intent of the ratifiers.
Perhaps that is why he omits mention of what University of Chicago law professor Philip Hamburger made clear: that Black's position is owing not to what the ratifiers made of the Constitution (including the amendments), but to Black's own background in the Ku Klux Klan.
Of the 41 richest Kyoto ratifiers, 34 had increased emissions between 1990 and 2004.