dna

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Related to recombinant DNA: recombinant DNA technology

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Ideally, the efficiencies of recombinant DNA technology will diminish the need for such pricing.
Margaret Hamburg at the FDA stated, "One of the HPV DNA fragments detected in the vaccine is part of a synthetic construct (GenBank Locus SCU55993) for HPV11 major capsid protein L1 gene, a recombinant DNA genetically engineered specifically for manufacturing of the Gardasil vaccine.
Antony, France) has patented a recombinant DNA vector characterized in that it is capable of directing the expression an/or transcription of a selected nucleotide sequence in the cells of the central nervous system and in that it comprises (i) at least part of the genome of an adenovirus, including the regions required for that adenovirus to penetrate into the cells normally infectable by that adenovirus and (ii) being inserted into said part of genome of an adenovirus under the control of a promoter, either present or also inserted into said genome part and operative in said cells.
Upon approval by the FDA, Velosulin(R)BR will be the only recombinant DNA insulin product approved for use in insulin pumps.
Two of 13 gene therapy protocols approved by the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee target HIV infection.
In addition, because flagellin is a stable bacterial protein, these products are also simple to make using recombinant DNA techniques.
Recombinant DNA molecules encoding the truncated insulin-like growth factor binding proteins are also described along with recombinant microorganisms and cell lines containing the DNA molecules and methods for producing the truncated insulin-like growth factor binding proteins using recombinant hosts containing the relevant DNA molecules.
Gonal-F(R), identical to the natural hFSH molecule, is the first human heterodimeric(A) glycoprotein to be produced by recombinant DNA technology.
Wilson and his colleagues received approval last year from the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) to administer liver cells containing added LDL receptor genes to three patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (SN: 10/12/91, p.
He has worked on dozens of products produced by recombinant DNA technology in microbial, yeast and mammalian cells systems.
Saticov, CA) has patented a chimeric recombinant DNA molecule comprising: a plurality of DNA sequences, each of which comprises a plant-functional promoter linked to a coding region, which encodes a virus-associated coat protein, wherein said DNA sequences are preferably linked in tandem so that they are expressed in virus-susceptible plant cells transformed with said recombinant DNA molecule to impart resistance to said viruses; as well as methods for transforming plants with the chimeric recombinant DNA molecule and for selecting plants which express at least one of said DNA sequences imparting viral resistance.
patent issued to NYU covering DNA sequences coding for human BPI and its fragments, and for the manufacture of BPI-based proteins using recombinant DNA technology.

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