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For example the base ala functions verbally as alaia, a term which could be translated 'kill', and ala takes a reduplicative form, alula (that is, a contraction of ala-ala) to function as a noun for 'war'.
The article will focus on reduplicative constructions in Estonian, but sometimes comparisons will be drawn with similar constructions in other Finno-Ugric languages, mainly Finnish.
The "Generalized Phonology Prediction" of Inkelas and Zoll (2005) states that reduplicative and nonreduplicative constructions alike draw from the same range of cophonologies.
By privileging the standpoint of reduplicative syllogistic, Back apparently fails to recognize that the issue of reduplication has yielded a series of important contributions to the theory of knowledge and to metaphysics as well.
The internally reduplicative word REDUPLICATIVE is to be found in the name of a fascinating neurological condition called REDUPLICATIVE PARAAMNESIA OF KLEIST (yes, some wimps prefer the spelling 'paramnesia').
In rhyming, reduplicative, and alliterative binomes, we frequently find the Shiji adding the same semantic classifier to both characters, rendering a phrase of strong aural value uniform in its visual appearance: binomes descriptive of water are generally written with the "water" classifier, those of mountains with the "mountain," those of minerals and stone with either "stone" or "jade," and those of plants with "grass.
Within this problem-solving atmosphere, most of the articles are concerned with theoretical issues, such as the differentiation of reduplication from repetition, phonology versus morphology competing for the status of the most explanatory/relevant field for reduplication, and the form-meaning interface as viewed through reduplicative constructions.
Inspired by some of Karlgren's hypotheses of initial consonant clusters in Old Chinese, as well as Karlgren's concept of "word families," Boodberg developed a theory that reduplicative expressions of the class known as dieyun "repeated rhyme" such as julu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPORDUCIBLE IN ASCII] "hunchback" had developed out of earlier monosyllables with initial clusters.
Non-tone-integrating affixes preserve stem tone, as illustrated below by the nominalizing suffix -wa:, in (18a), with a LH pattern, and the pluractional reduplicative prefix, in (18b), which reduplicates the tone of the first syllable of the base.
Here, Yuan shows his mastery of the older yuefu style by his use of a dawn parting scene and his lexical choices, from the use of reduplicative binomes such as "cold and mournful" (qiqi [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) and "hastily" (xiexi [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) in lines one and five, to the parallelism of "the traveler" and "the longing wife" in the second couplet, to the simple syntax and the general lack of visual imagery throughout.
Sen, which means "forest" in Wei's couplet, here becomes sen-sen [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] a reduplicative binom indicating fear or shivering.
Its potential as a general theory of reduplication is also demonstrated by applying dual description to various other kinds of reduplicative phenomena.