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15) On ritualization see also Nadel 1954, Gluckman 1962, Huxley 1966.
In essence, investiture was the ritualization of power relations through which the symbolism of Confucian morality worked to reduce the tension arising from the power disparity between the two countries.
Specifically, we utilize two theoretical approaches in an integrative manner--elementary relations theory and structural ritualization theory--to better understand how the carnival has been strategically used in very different ways by various groups to accomplish their objectives.
Collectively, we are guilty of sputtering this useless advice to each other because modern Western culture is no longer accustomed to the meaningful ritualization that allowed our wise ancestors to mark life's transitions in healthy ways.
Scott's anthropological imagination is less concerned with accurately depicting Whig and Royalist rituals than with showing how ritualization separates insiders from outsiders, high from low, and the sacred from the profane.
The centrality of "masculine beauty and homosex" has remained central in Long's gay theology to the extent that he has insisted that the "pursuit of sex" or the "promiscuous lifestyle" associated with the "sexual delivery system" of the gay bars and baths should be "understood as the determinative ritualization of the gay religion of male beauty and homosex" (1996, pp.
Researchers such as Goffman (1988) identified various instances of gender stereotyping in advertisements as follows: functional ranking, relative size, ritualization of subordination, the feminine touch and licensed withdrawal.
Tomasello writes: "Cumulative cultural evolution depends on imitative learning, and perhaps active instruction on the part of adults and cannot be brought about by means of 'weaker' forms of social learning such as local enhancement, emulation learning, ontogenetic ritualization, or any form of individual learning.
His analysis became a template for later studies, (94) and many of his terms, such as "licensed withdrawal," (95) the "head cant" (96) and "the bashful knee bend," (97) became something of a taxonomy for what he called "the ritualization of subordination" (98) of women in advertising.
Peck (Professor of Sociology, University of Alabama), the two-volume "Encyclopedia Of Death And The Human Experience" is an impressively comprehensive and detailed compendium of information and scholarship surveying and examining the beliefs, traditions, mores, customs and social rituals associated with the process of dying and the ritualization of death.
Arguing that divine healing fostered a "devotional ethics" in which the suffering body was no longer to be endured but instead overcome through "acting faith" (94), Curtis traces this changing theological interpretation of suffering with keen attention to its ritualization and institutionalization.