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Multiculturalism interacts with two different kinds of secularism in Western Europe.
The Congress President recalled that Nehru had once warned that he would fight to his last breath of his life to protect secularism if it comes under attack.
One manifestation of secularism is asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings or, in a state declared to be neutral on matters of belief, from the imposition by government of religion or religious practices upon its people.
There are deep roots in both traditional and modern interpretations of Islam that lend themselves to political secularism.
In other words, contrary to what happened in the West, in the Middle East secularism is associated with oppressive tyranny, and democratic processes -as in Turkey or Egypt-or partially democratic ones, as in Iran, bring religious extremists to power.
At present, India sees secularism as more important than the mere business of wielding ballots.
It remains of course an open question whether secularism can in fact provide what religion has provided in the past.
In common usage, secularism means indifference to or rejection or exclusion of religion and religious considerations.
This secularism, unlike secularism in the West, did not banish religion from public life.
Atheism is a lack of belief in any gods; secularism is the political belief that the government should remain entirely neutral with respect to religion and not favour one group above all the others.
By exploring the historical strains of secularism in each locale, he shows that current challenges to secularism are not a contemporary phenomenon, but a continuation of broader struggles to define secularism in specific, historically religious cultures.
Under the headline "Lebanon's Salvation Lies with Secularism," Zayan said that while he was following up the demonstration against the sectarian system, he imagined "a democratic Lebanon with secular Lebanese belonging to the Constitution, law, order and freedom rather than to confessions and sects.