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The second version, which negates Critical Theory and Critical Pedagogy's humanistic universalism, retreats into the realm of self-evidence of the marginalized, controlled, and the powerless.
21) Self-evidence is not well suited to answer the "how much" or "to what extent" questions.
A more sophisticated version of the appeal to self-evidence proposes that human bodily life provides a reason for action that requires no further or deeper reason (or subrational motivation) for its intelligibility as a human end or purpose.
Preller views this principles as lacking the force of self-evidence, and therefore it cannot be used to posit the existence of ends for which beings have natural tendencies.
Barnes holds that perfection is (strictly, it seems) an epistemological notion concerning self-evidence of validity.
When an artist's work is so inseparably a part of the times, it's difficult to recall the "becoming" - to remember that just as our understanding of the period is indivisible from the artist's response to it, the self-evidence of his or her achievement is inevitably the sum of all we have said of the artist and the work.
The Precepts of the Decalogue and the Problem of Self-Evidence, JAMES JACOBS
Destruktion does this by stripping 'commonly used concepts and expressions of the veneer of self-evidence,' and by uncovering 'once again what is "genuine" about these expressions as a possibility for the future' (247).
Once the Flavin lamp surrounded the viewer in its glow, rendering him or her numb with optical sensation, once it ceased to declare its material self-evidence and became, of all things, a pleasurable experience, it could no longer be considered a critical work.
3) Further, it is not uncommon for contemporary philosophers to reduce the concept of self-evidence to some kind of subjective feeling of certainty or even personal preference.
Art historians today, more or less conscious heirs to entire strata of "humanisms"--those of Vasari and of Kant, for example, which Panofsky's essay sets in a continuum (though a rather strange one if you think about it)--for the most part no longer question this postulated harmony, which seems to advance by its own momentum and has at least two strengths, the first being that of self-evidence.
He looks closely at Ross's position and at some of the main concepts in this position such as prima facie duty and self-evidence.