dna

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Related to single-stranded DNA: B DNA

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
This anneals to the single-stranded DNA product of the previous step, providing a starting point for another of M-MLV RT's activities: a classical DNA polymerase function.
Several investigators have used exonuclease digestion of the complementary strand to produce single-stranded DNA targets for hybridizations (8-16).
Turberfield, designed a set of four single-stranded DNA molecules, each one with components in an order that would result in certain DNA-DNA bonds.
When a current was induced through the nanotube, segments of single-stranded DNA (known as oligomeres) made up of either 60 or 120 nucleotides, were drawn into the opening of the nanotube and translocated from the anode side of the nanotube to the output cathode side, due to the negative charge carried by the DNA molecule.
The MGB probe technology utilizes a minor groove binder attached to single-stranded DNA probes to boost the stability and raise the melting temperature (Tm) of the DNA duplex formed when probes bind to complementary targets.
So, he and his colleagues adorned some nanotubes with a layer of single-stranded DNA, which binds to more kinds of molecules than naked carbon does.
The initial steps of Ribo-SPIA RNA amplification are directed toward the formation of a unique double-stranded cDNA that is a substrate for subsequent SPIA amplification, which generates multiple copies of single-stranded DNA products complementary to the sample mRNA.
Deamination of single-stranded DNA cytosine residues in aerobic nitric oxide solution at micromolar total NO exposures.
RCA refers to a method for amplifying DNA or RNA in which an oligonucleotide primer complementary to a circle of single-stranded DNA is extended "endlessly.
This favors hybridization of the wild-type single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), [3] with mismatched sequences causing false positives.
PNAs mimic DNA but are known to be more stable and to bind stronger and more specific to single-stranded DNA or RNA than DNA.
Evidence that these two bands were single-stranded DNA was that they were sensitive to mung-bean nuclease, which specifically digests single-stranded DNA.

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