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2012a) used cohort reconstruction methods (Hilborn and Walters, 1992) to estimate broad year exploitation rates, referred to as the spawner reduction rate and defined as the reduction in a brood's potential adult spawner escapement that is caused by ocean fisheries in relation to escapement potential in the absence of ocean fishing.
Although heterochronal spawners might not benefit from predator satiation as much as isochronal spawners, they do benefit from an increase in fecundity, a spread of predation risk, a spread of larval impact on their prey, and a decrease in the risk of spawning eggs in unfavorable conditions (12).
For estimates of t, we weighted age frequencies of spawners by a measure of relative fecundity and then used the average from the three sampling dates.
Common models in population dynamics relating the recruitment R to spawner abundance N are the Beverton-Holt [R = aN/(1 + bN)] (Beverton & Holt 1957) and the Ricker [R = aN exp(-cN)] models (Ricker 1954).
The distribution of oocyte diameters and oocyte stages indicate that Gulf corvina is a multiple batch spawner with asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate annual fecundity.
In addition, interannual differences in length-specific fecundity of the Norwegian spring spawning herring were explained by variation in weight-at-length, that is higher fecundity of spawners in better condition (Oskarsson et al.
gularis are substrate spawners which could sometimes spawn on aquatic weeds and the eggs can hatch in 16-18 days after they are laid (10).
Most species of Cyprinella have been characterized as crevice spawners and lay eggs in crevices in submerged logs and bedrock (Johnston and Page, 1992).
This year's forecast is for 245,000 spawners, a sizable boost, although still well below the healthy returns from five years ago that reached 700,000 fish.
These are fall spawners that ascend the Wachusett tributaries.
At the last-Saturday- in-April opener, Great Lakes spawners, some over 10 pounds, come in through the channel from Lake Michigan and mingle.
These are big, powerful backend salmon which can be distinguished from other salmon because they are late spawners and come straight in from the sea, all silver and bearing the hallmark of excellence - tide lice.