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Specifically, a 1-unit increase in ln-transformed PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area ([beta] = -2.
Furthermore, this was confirmed by histopathological analysis and sperm head morphology but the cause of this infertility at genetic level is not evaluated in the research paper.
The characteristics controlling the sperm head shape are carried on the autosomes and sperm abnormality test identifies those agents which cause small alterations in testicular DNA (Topham 1980).
They next treated younger sperm, in which ADAM1/ADAM2 is still found over the whole sperm head.
1976, "Inheritance of sperm head abnormality types in mice and the role of Y-chromosomes," Gent.
MCP proteins sit in a cluster at the front of the sperm head, underneath an outer membrane, until just before fertilization, when the membrane dissolves.
The parameters recorded for each sample were as follows: percentage of motile sperm, movement velocity such as rapid, medium, slow, and static, and movement characteristics such as progressiveness, average path velocity (VAP), straight line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), sperm head elongation, and area rate.
Both cases showed that the volumes estimated via RPT fit the range of volume of a normal sperm head (the tail, normally thinner than 1 [micro]m, was ignored) from a few to 50 [micro][m.
These include the size and shape of sperm (sperm morphology) or the quality of the DNA contained in the sperm head.
ASAs directed against sperm tail may be responsible for the decrease in sperm motility, but antibodies directed against sperm head will affect sperm penetration of cervical mucus and the sperm-egg interaction (20).
The greatest variability in sperm morphology among these species is found in the sperm head and acrosome (Fig.
The mean [+ or 1] SD percentages of abnormal sperm head, midsection, and tail were 78.