The influence of preferred relaxing music on measurement of state anxiety
, relaxation, and physiological responses.
Repeated measures ANOVA compared pre and post data, including the state anxiety
measures, knowledge test, and attitude toward science.
Spielberger recommends that the State Anxiety
scale be administered first, followed by the Trait Anxiety scale, because the State Anxiety
scale is sensitive to the conditions under which the test is administered and can be influenced by feelings created by the Trait Anxiety scale.
Therefore, for a second experiment, which, owing to its automated nature, was largely completed before we had finished the analysis of the first, we predicted two findings: In the competitive game the scores of participants who returned PIFs would show a significant negative correlation with their state anxiety
score just prior to that game, and their game scores would be negatively correlated with the practice of a mental discipline.
Hanton & Connaughton (2002) found that although elite performers initially view cognitive state anxiety
as debilitative, they use cognitive strategies to overcome negative thoughts and change them to positive ones.
This distinction is not trivial as Spieiberger, Lushene, and McAdoo (1977) stated that increases in state anxiety
occur when a cognitive appraisal of threat is made with a concomitant increase in the autonomic system activity (i.
Compared to baseline, the state anxiety
level decreased by 3.
The PESAS is a recently developed measure designed for the evaluation of state anxiety
during PE lessons (Barkoukis, 2005; 2007).
However, there were no differences in the primary outcome measures between the two groups, although relief of state anxiety
, a secondary outcome, was greater with the higher dosage (P = 0.
1990, Howard & Smith 1986): state anxiety
, which is caused by a current situation and trait anxiety, which is defined as the disposition to react with worry, tension and fear of failure in an evaluative situation.
There was no main effect of age on State Anxiety
, Trait Anxiety, or Depression scores, and no main effects of gender, body weight, or puberty on State Anxiety
6] On the other hand, state anxiety
involves feelings at a particular moment in time and is defined as a complex emotional reaction invoked in persons who interpret specific situations as personally threatening.