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A medical procedure where the reproductive organs are removed or rendered ineffective.

Legally mandated sterilization of criminals, or other members of society deemed "socially undesirable," has for some time been considered a stain on the history of U.S. law. The practice, also known as eugenics, originated early in the twentieth century. In 1914, a Model Eugenical Sterilization Law was published by Harry Laughlin at the Eugenics Records Office. Laughlin proposed the sterilization of "socially inadequate" persons, which translated as anyone "maintained wholly or in part by public expense." This would include the "feebleminded, insane, blind, deaf, orphans, and the homeless." At the time the model law was published, 12 states had enacted sterilization laws. Such laws were seen to benefit society since they presumably reduced the burden on taxpayers of maintaining state-run facilities. Eventually, these laws were challenged in court.

In Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927), oliver wendell holmes jr. wrote the infamous opinion that upheld the constitutionality of a Virginia sterilization law, fueling subsequent legislative efforts to enact additional sterilization laws. By 1930, 30 states and Puerto Rico had passed laws mandating sterilization for many criminal or moral offenses. Nearly all of the states with such laws imposed mandatory sterilization of mentally defective citizens. Nineteen states required sterilization for parents of children likely to experience various disorders. Six states encouraged sterilization for individuals whose children might be "socially inadequate."

Finally, the Supreme Court struck down an Oklahoma law mandating involuntary sterilization for repeat criminals in Skinner v. Oklahoma, 316 U.S. 535, 62 S. Ct. 1110, 86 L. Ed. 1655 (1942). Justice william o. douglas's opinion broadly defined the right to privacy to include the right to procreate, and concluded that the government's power to sterilize interfered with an individual's basic liberties.

By mid-century, legal attitudes had changed, and many state sterilization laws were held to be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment prohibiting Cruel and Unusual Punishment.

Further readings

Carlson, Elof Axel. 2001. The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Kevles, Daniel J. 1985. In the Name of Eugenics. New York: Knopf.

Smith, J. David, and K. Ray Nelson. 1999. The Sterilization of Carrie Buck. Far Hills, N.J.: New Horizon Press.

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As an island, we are far more vulnerable to a pandemic situation; however, by using Red Bag Solution's Steam Sterilization and Maceration process, we believe our institution is better prepared for a crisis of this sort.
Even after frequent autoclaving, steam sterilization, or CIP cleaning, it provides the user with reliable measurement results.
The high-performance material provides superior strength, high thermal performance, chemical resistance, and the ability to withstand repeated steam sterilization.
In addition, one has to distinguish between the different sterilization methods, as the stress applied to the filter is higher in an inline steam sterilization process compared with gamma irradiation.
Available in colors, they are aimed at containers (pictured), soluble cores for lost-core molding, and single-use medical applications such as handles for surgical instruments mar can be initially sterilized with radiation and then dissolved after use during steam sterilization of the metallic part of the instrument.
Dual-function vacuum cleaner with steam sterilization, which kills ticks and allergy-causing viruses in carpets, sofas and beds.
Of those, dry steam sterilization shows the most promise.
regulations and to familiarize them with legal alternatives, including steam sterilization.
The heat involved in steam sterilization is detrimental to the new biologics used in drug/device combinations, while the residuals left by ethylene oxide can also cause problems," Bryans said.
Effects of irradiation were compared with effects of a steam sterilization method.
ProTest Steam is a self-contained biological indicator inoculated with viable Geobacillus stearothermophilus bacterial spore, and is intended for monitoring the efficacy of steam sterilization cycles (121[degrees]C gravity displacement and 121[degrees]C to 135[degrees]C pre-vacuum cycles).