were used for the presentation, which were selected using a pilot study of 67 undergraduate students (20 males, 47 females) from Doshisha University.
Laptop computers placed on each table had purpose-built MTS software installed that presented stimuli
and programmed consequences, collected data, and initiated experimental phase changes.
DELTA] subcycle for rats from the Variable Group indicates that such a condition enhanced the differentiation of responding between stimuli
presented during [t.
In most cases, especially with nonhuman subjects, the results suggest that simultaneous presentation of stimuli
gives rise to a faster discrimination process when compared with successive presentation of stimuli
(but exceptions are found in Bitterman et al.
Several researchers have developed preference assessment procedures that involve direct observation of choices between concurrently available stimuli
as an index of preference (DeLeon & Iwata, 1996; Fisher et al.
On the subsequent test phase, the ability of all the participants to discriminate between the stimuli
was assessed with a same/different judgement task (e.
were generated using PsychToobox software (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997) on a Macintosh computer and projected onto a rear screen, located 32 cm from the participant's eyes by a projector (PG-B10S; SHARP, Osaka, Japan) via a mirror.
Pairs of stimuli
were alternated in quasi-random fashion: in 8 presentations one pair was used 4 times and the other 4 times, with each pair of stimuli
presented no more than twice in succession.
The data collected shows that psychiatrically healthy carriers of the TCF4 gene also filter stimuli
less effectively - like people who suffer from schizophrenia.
are presented on index cards that are of the same size and shape.
A number of studies using masking tasks have shown that participants perform successfully in tests of derived relations when verbal behavior with respect to the stimuli
involved in the task is impeded (Olson & Fazio, 2002; Tonneau & Gonzales, 2004; Walther, 2002).
2001), flatworms (Koopowitz, 1974), and mollusks (Bristol and Carew, 2005) have been shown to habituate to irrelevant stimuli