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Alim Louis Benabid in Grenoble, France, when applied to the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's produced a similar result as surgical interruption.
There were tau-positive neurons and tufted astrocytes in frontal, temporal, parietal, and motor cortex (Figure 12, E; positive with Gallyas stain in Figure 12, E, inset), nucleus basalis, caudate, putamen (Figure 12, F), globus pallidus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus (Figure 12, G), and many brainstem nuclei.
Researchers concluded that both the globus pallidus interna and the subthalamic nucleus areas of the brain "are viable DBS targets for treatment of motor symptoms, but highlight the importance of nonmotor symptoms as determinants of quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease.
2007) NMDA-mediated release of glutamate and GABA in the subthalamic nucleus is mediated by dopamine: an in vivo microdialysis study in rats.
22) Note that in one patient after subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS, pulse-modulated radiofrequency diathermy applied to the maxilla produced permanent diencephalic and brainstem lesions leading to a vegetative state.
Neural modulation through stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus is effective for improvement of bimanual motor performance, maximum grip force production and temporal aspects of motor performance.
Their motor scores improved by a median of 49% with subthalamic nucleus stimulation and by 37% with pallidal stimulation, compared with no stimulation.
Mrs Mitchell used basic geometry to pinpoint the right part of the brain - known as the subthalamic nucleus - where the electrodes should be placed.
PART C: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF GLOBUS PALLIDUS, SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS AND SUBSTANTIA NIGRA
The Vercise(TM) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) System is indicated for use in unilateral or bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or internal globus pallidus (GPi) for treatment of levodopa responsive Parkinson's disease which is not adequately controlled with medication and also for treatment of intractable primary and secondary dystonia, for persons 7 years of age and older.
Based on that evidence, they conclude that bilateral stimulation (on both sides of the brain) of two brain "targets" areas called the subthalamic nucleus and the nucleus accumbens can be regarded as effective treatments for OCD.