Through an understanding of available options such as superseding cause
, intervening force or a plaintiff's reckless conduct, retailers and their counsel may better assess potential risk regarding the products they sell and will be better prepared to defend themselves when facing an unanticipated product liability lawsuit.
The surgeon's action may be deemed a factual, a concurring, or a superseding cause
Because highly reckless conduct is necessarily unforeseeable and outrageous and, therefore, the cause of the accident, the defendant must "show that the highly reckless conduct was the sole or superseding cause
of the injuries sustained.
The defendants said that the "negligence" of the Superintendent constituted an independent intervening and superseding cause
of the very losses he was complaining about, and that this should totally relieve them of liability for negligence.
The court went through, with specificity the circumstances wherein in a motor vehicular homicide case, an intervening cause is considered a superseding cause
if it satisfies four elements: 1) Its harmful effects must have occurred after the original negligence; 2) It must not have been brought about by the original negligence; 3) It must have actively worked to bring about a result which would not otherwise have followed from the original negligence; and 4) it must not have been reasonably foreseeable by the original wrongdoer.
They should argue that no so-called independent investigation is sufficient to break the causal chain of discrimination because it is not an independent and superseding cause
The superseding cause
argument presents one of the more significant defenses to a product liability claim.
2] As the Third District Court itself put it in an earlier regime: "It is well-established that if the reasonable possibility of the intervention, criminal or otherwise, of a third party is the avoidable risk of harm which itself causes one to be deemed negligent, the occurrence of that very conduct cannot be a superseding cause
of a subsequent misadventure.
The court said that even if the firm had negligently failed to see the return was filed on time, Kox's subsequent negligence in taking the full QTIP election, after he had left the firm, was the superseding cause
of the trust's damages.
To establish a superseding cause
, it must be shown that the criminal act was not reasonably foreseeable, it was highly extraordinary, and the conduct of the third party wa also highly extraordinary.
In both cases, the courts reached the conclusion that the video game and movie defendants owed no duty to the plaintiffs, the intangible ideas in movies and video games are not products, and the criminal acts of the shooters were the superseding cause
of the deaths.
is "an act of a third person or other force which by its intervention prevents the actor from being liable for harm to another which his antecedent negligence is a substantial factor in bringing about" (Re statement [Second] of Torts [section]440).