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Their B-cell origin was further confirmed by immunophenotyping using six combinations of three different monoclonal antibodies, each against either B- or T-cell surface markers (Table 3).
Two standouts among the many clinical assays adapted for flow cytometry are surface marker analysis and DNA analysis.
The use of surface marker identification and classification of cells is spreading beyond lymphocytes to the identification of monocytes, macrophages, myeloid stem cells, and tumor cells.
In the search for surface markers, the researchers investigated the cardiovascular progenitor cells using microarray gene expression profiling.
To conduct the study, Boiko analyzed cell surface markers on primary melanoma tumor samples taken directly from patients at the Stanford Cancer Center.
Today, the fruits of these efforts are visible in a wide variety of clinical applications, including CD4 T-cell monitoring in HIV infection, classification of leukemias and other tumors, tumor staging by cell cycle analysis or surface marker expression, isolation of stem cells for transplantation, and monitoring of the progression of bone marrow transplants.
Such cellular surface markers add hope for replacing surrogate measurements seemingly destined to last forever.
To record what the body is doing while the muscles are working, we attach bright surface markers to different parts of the body.
The T Cells were transfected with messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) molecules that target specific cell surface markers on tumor cells.
The regulatory (Treg) cell subset associated with severe disease in humans expresses a unique combination of surface markers, including TNFRII.
The subpopulation of human cells described in the patent was defined by characterizing specific cell surface markers for cells, which posses the ability to self replicate and differentiate toward one or more lineages.
The data presented show that GRNCM1 expresses HLA class I antigen on their surface, but not HLA class II, or other surface markers required for T-cell activation, even after stimulation by inflammatory cytokines.