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Additionally, we calculate Instructional Efficiency IE of this intervention in order to evaluate the cost of students' performance in terms of their reported mental effort (Kalyuga & Sweller, 2005; Paas & van Merrie'nboer, 1993).
Studies have revealed that secondary task performance increases a burden on working memory and can be used to both create and measure cognitive load (Brunken, Plaas, & Leutner, 2003; Marcus, Cooper, & Sweller, 1996).
Humans' limited working memory and our difficulty in processing more than three chunks of information simultaneously are considered important variables that impact the effectiveness of teaching, learning, and expert performance (Kalyuga & Sweller, 2005).
Research has shown that the mathematics problem-solving performance of sighted students often falters when cognitive resources are sapped by anxiety, time pressure, learning disabilities, or other factors (Osborne, 2007; Royer, Tronsky, Chan, Jackson, & Merchant, 1999; Swanson, Cooney, & Brock, 1993; Swanson & Jerman, 2006; Sweller, 1988; Walczyk & Griffith-Ross, 2006).
Labaree also suggested that the lack of influence is fortunate, a view supported by empirical investigations of the comparative effectiveness of different teaching techniques, which show progressivist techniques to be less effective (Kirschener, Sweller & Clark, 2006; Mayer, 2004).
Kirschner, Sweller and Clark (2006) conclude that fifty years of empirical data does not support active learning methods used early in the learning process.
The CTML is grounded in the cognitive load theory (CLT; Chandler & Sweller, 1991) and the dual processing theory (DPT; Paivio, 1986).
Overcoming these limitations is enabled by the use of schemas, stored in long-term memory, to process information more efficiently (Kalyuga, Ayres, Chandler, & Sweller, 2003).
However, some researchers maintain that some instructional procedures can be counter productive because they can incorporate unnecessary cognitive activity that places heavy demands on working memory (McKeon, Beck, & Blake, 2009; Sweller, 1988).
Sweller (1994) investigated extraneous cognitive load that could be imposed by the format of worked problems in the domain of geometry.
This result can be explained using cognitive load theory (Leahy, Cooper and Sweller 2004, Sweller, Merrienboer and Paas 1998), which elucidates that interesting and emotional elements in a text may require a significant part of the capacity of working memory and, therefore, the processing of the main content of the text is disturbed.
Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) pointed out that specific guidance and goals help learners process information and store it in long-term memory.