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Related to sympathetic trunk: sympathetic trunk ganglia
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Key words: dog, anatomy, histology, sciatic nerve, thoracic sympathetic trunk.
Electrical signals from the Vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve, slow the heart directly at the SA and AV nodes, In contrast, signals from the sympathetic trunk stimulate the SA and AV nodes and can dramatically increase HR above resting levels.
Horner's syndrome has many possible aetiologies that can involve a lesion anywhere in the course of the sympathetic tract from hypothalamus to brainstem and upper thoracic cord, sympathetic trunk, stellate ganglion, carotid artery and, finally, long ciliary nerve to the eye.