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The variables with the highest loadings along PCI were symphyseal knob length, the lengths of the first 2 anal-fin spines, and the length of the first dorsal-fin spine (Table 1).
Further musculoskeletal tests/x-ray showed anterior pubic symphyseal tenderness.
Lower jaw strongly produced beyond the upper when the mouth is closed; symphyseal knob evident; jaws thickly covered by small scales.
5 cm of symphyseal diastasis and anterior SI widening; however, the posterior SI ligaments are intact.
Human modifications for childbirth include a somewhat flexible cranium due to unfused skull bones in the newborn and maternal pelvis flexibility due to symphyseal ligament relaxation.
9) in head; dentition of holotype typical of the genus with three pairs of canine teeth anteriorly at side of upper jaw, the first forward-projecting, the next two strongly recurved and outcurved, the third much the longest; an irregular row of very small conical teeth medial to upper canines; side of upper jaw with about 18-20 small conical teeth; lower jaw with a single pair of forward-projecting canines and a row of very small conical teeth in the symphyseal gap; side of lower jaw with a row of about 20 small conical teeth, decreasing in size posteriorly.
An x-ray revealed that the right mandible had a "moth-eaten" appearance that extended from the subcondylar area on the right to the symphyseal area on the left; obliteration of the right inferior alveolar canal was also evident (figure 1).
The presence of the long, bulbous snout, a symphyseal tooth row, two rows of large upper anterior teeth on each side of the symphysis, the unequal size of first and second dorsal fins, and the first dorsal fin being located closer to the pectoral bases than the pelvic bases provided further confirmation that the shark belonged to the genus Odontaspis, as opposed to Carcharias (Compagno, 1984).
This can be accomplished via traction, Schanz pins, or indirect reduction of the back by anterior symphyseal plating.
Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation.