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They showed 50% reduction in MVV and attributed this to decreased lung volumes, fixed thoracic cage, and loss of musculoskeletal power which are characteristics of scoliosis.
Changes in lung capacities during pregnancy may also be attributed to various factors like exercise, increase in body weight, changes in chest wall, position and movement of diaphragm, mobility of thoracic cage, change in intra-abdominal and intra-pleural pressures, changes in accessory muscles of respiration and mechanical effect of enlarging breasts.
Although the infection mechanism of primary tuberculosis of the thoracic cage is not fully elucidated, it is thought that it is caused by reactivation or spreading of the foci, which are formed during the hematogenous or lymphatic dissemination of tuberculosis bacilli and stayed inactive, through the lung and neighboring the pleura (6-8).
The ribs form the thoracic cage by articulating anteriorly with the sternum and posteriorly with the thoracic vertebrae.
Ever since AS was first described by Bernard Connor, its most characteristic feature has been restricted movement of the vertebral column and thoracic cage.
Functional parameters are reciprocally conditioned, after the premise that an oxygenated heart and a big pulmonar capacity, fact that is owed to the thoracic cage elasticity; there is an increased effort capacity, exprimated through the level of V[O.
The rate of overall bone involvement is less then 2%, which suggests that location in the thoracic cage is not common15.
Thoracic outlet syndrome is a clinical entity which produces a symptom complex with a myriad of presentations, caused by compression of neurovascular structures as they leave the thoracic cage through its upper aperture.
Notably, the child in this case had significant pathology affecting his cervical and thoracic spine causing a fixed forward flexion deformity of the neck, as well as extraneous bone formation cross-linking the ribs of his thoracic cage and kyphoscoliosis, contributing to markedly reduced chest movement.
Use of biodegradable patch for reconstruction of large thoracic cage defects in growing children.