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The researchers have demonstrated that their system is effective in measuring Shiga toxin activity compared with equipment costing 100 times more.
Regional Presence of Available Botulinum Toxin Products II-13
Scientists have known for about a decade that defensins can neutralize bacterial toxins but, until now, did not know how.
Each nanosponge's red-blood-cell membrane seizes and detains the Staphylococcus aureus (staph) toxin alpha-haemolysin without compromising the toxin's structural integrity through heating or chemical processing.
2011) has demonstrated PSP toxin accumulation in abalone fed a toxin-supplemented diet.
Toxin A-B+ strains, however, account for 2% to 11% of CDI cases5 with higher estimates in Ireland6 and Asia.
The toxin and the Clostridium microbes that produce it are the focus of studies by ARS food safety experts at the Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, part of the agency's Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California, near San Francisco.
The effects can last from days to months, depending on the toxin used.
However, patient diagnosis was made solely through fecal toxin testing, and strains were not characterized.
Thus, the increased responsiveness to toxin in persons with preexisting airway disease may be linked to their underlying airway inflammation at the time of toxin exposure.
Bacteria produce toxins under stressful conditions, as when they are too crowded, are denied food, or are fighting back against antibiotics.
The assay is simpler to use than other methods and can detect as few as 10 parts per billion of toxin per gram of sample.