This is the first time a botulinum neurotoxin has been found outside of Clostridium botulinum -- and not just the toxin
, but an entire unit containing the toxin
and associated proteins that prevent the toxin
from being degraded in the GI tract," says Min Dong, PhD, a scientist in Boston Children's Hospital's Department of Urology and Harvard Medical School and one of the world's experts on botulinum toxins
Patients who were positive for toxin
had a higher case-fatality rate than those who were either toxigenic culture-positive but toxin
-negative, or those who were negative by both methods, leading the authors to conclude that a positive toxin
result exhibited greater accuracy for CDI, and identified patients who needed treatment.
The animal-model test detects active toxin
just 50 percent of the time, whereas the new T-cell test detects active toxin
100 percent of the time.
The adsorbed toxin
is less accessible to microbial degradation, and its insecticidal activity can persist for a long period , probably enhancing the control on target pests at the same time carrying a hazardous effect on nontarget organisms.
The researchers have demonstrated that their system is effective in measuring Shiga toxin
activity compared with equipment costing 100 times more.
Scientists have known for about a decade that defensins can neutralize bacterial toxins
but, until now, did not know how.
A Harvard Stem Cell Institute team at Massachusetts General Hospital led by neuroscientist Khalid Shah, who recently demonstrated the value of stem cells loaded with cancer-killing herpes viruses, now has a way to genetically engineer stem cells so that they can produce and secrete tumor-killing toxins
Each nanosponge's red-blood-cell membrane seizes and detains the Staphylococcus aureus (staph) toxin
alpha-haemolysin without compromising the toxin
's structural integrity through heating or chemical processing.
2011) has demonstrated PSP toxin
accumulation in abalone fed a toxin
was purified by a combination of sequential ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by gel filtration chromatography on superdex-200 HR 10/30 column in the FPLC system.
Oliver Dolly, director of the International Centre for Neurotherapeutics at Dublin City University in Ireland, who adds that the toxin
is important for treating many diseases.
CDT was confirmed by amplifying the portion of the gene (cdtB) that encodes for the receptor-binding component of the toxin
, according to a previously reported protocol (6).