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IBM semiconductor innovations include dual-core microprocessors, copper wiring, silicon-on-insulator and silicon germanium transistors, strained silicon, and eFUSE, a technology that enables computer chips to automatically respond to changing conditions.
Although some theorists had previously proposed that Y junctions might act as FETs, researchers don't yet know what characteristics of the nanotubes--perhaps their shape or the iron-titanium particles--are responsible for their transistor function.
After significant investments in testing and materials evaluation, Freescale engineers were able to minimize the adverse effects that occur when a transistor die contacts plastic.
In the new transistor, however, Hafez and Feng thinned the collector and varied the relative quantities of indium and gallium throughout that layer by a process that enabled them to sequentially deposit atomic layers of specified compositions.
The transistor uses a modified design and IBM's proven silicon germanium (SiGe) technology to reach speeds of 210 GigaHertz (GHz) while drawing just a milliamp of electrical current.
Adding to the 50nm design improvements, the SEG transistor introduces a multi-layered dielectric layer (ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2) to resolve weak electrical features.
In contrast, prototype transistors made from his team's new material are 10 times as conductive as the silicon transistors used in today's liquid-crystal displays.
Our studies prove that carbon nanotubes can compete with silicon in terms of performance, and since they may allow transistors to be made much smaller, they are promising candidates for a future nanoelectronic technology.
Phiar is collaborating with the University of Colorado on the development of metal-insulator transistors.
Such a transistor consists of layers of exotic semiconductor compounds, such as gallium arsenide, stacked on a microchip.
In December 1998, Sanyo developed the world's smallest and thinnest leadless transistor package based on an original ECSP concept.
The microscopic details of how electric charges move through transistors and other devices made of such materials have remained obscure, however.