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Related to trepanations: trephination, burr holes
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MACHADO & SILVA (2013) carried out an 8mm trepanation to compare rigid and a flexible sinuscopy in horses, using a 4mm 30[degrees] rigid endoscope and a flexible endoscope 4.
There is no doubt that trepanation is one of the oldest surgical procedures, as well as the oldest neurosurgical intervention made by humans (1).
This wide-spread surgical practice since the Mesolithic (3) is certified by the trepanation procedures discovered throughout the world, including in Europe and the Mediterranean Sea, North America, Africa and Australia, the most common practice being found in archaeological sites from Andes and Mesoamerica (4).
The first obvious signs of skull trepanation dates from 5 100 years B.
It's impossible to determine from bones whether trepanations were aimed at treating chronic headaches, epilepsy, psychological problems or difficulties attributed to evil spirits.
Partial trepanations were probably intentional rather than unfinished, with their own cultural significance, she says.
Among them, 45 separate trepanation procedures were in evidence.