layer between the troposphere and stratosphere, 8 miles to 11 miles above earth's surface, is the point where water vapor, ozone and other gases enter the stratosphere.
Water vapor from the troposphere cannot easily leak upward into the stratosphere because the boundary between the two regions, known as the tropopause
, is extremely cold.
Global and regional warming trends have long been identified and associated with exacerbated wildfire occurrence but extreme injection by thunderstorms was previously judged to be unlikely because the tropopause
, a transitional zone from the troposphere to the stratosphere, is considered to be a strong barrier to convection.
NASA DEPLOYS ATTREX: NASA is deploying the uncrewed Global Hawk research aircraft to Guam for the Airborne Tropical Tropopause
NASA Global Hawks have already been used for a wide range of environmental missions, including collecting atmospheric data in support of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause
EXperiment and deployment over the Atlantic Ocean to study hurricane formation and intensity change during the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel missions.
This proposal outlines a research project in atmospheric sciences that addresses tropopause
related processes, which contribute to chemistry-climate coupling.
The winds also pose a problem at high altitudes, where low temperatures 6 between -70 and -50 degrees Fahrenheit at an atmospheric layer called the tropopause
-- can make the balloon brittle, meaning a sudden gust could rupture its thin surface.
Since net upward motion across the tropopause
takes place in the tropics, some of the biomass burning effluents may even reach into the stratosphere .
These "trails probably could have been made to cease at any elevation below the tropopause
by throttling the engines in accordance with rule 1 or 2 governing the suppression of exhaust trails.