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The first and more evident consideration is that the existence of an AFR unbalance between the cylinders induces a periodic oscillation on the confluence lambda sensor output, whose period is equal to the combustion cycle duration, and furthermore its amplitude is directly proportional to the unbalance magnitude, as it is shown in Figures 7, 8, 9 and 10.
It can therefore be concluded that the confluence lambda signal amplitude provides a measure of the unbalance magnitude, while the time, or better angular, interval between points with null derivative (maxima or minima) represents the key to identify relative cylinder AFR deviations, and to define how to correct the existing non-uniformity.
UI must then be compared to a threshold value experimentally calibrated to determine the presence of a "significant" AFR unbalance.
If the cylinder unbalance is due to imperfections or degradation, it could be preferable to evaluate the algorithm response on few consecutive cycles instead of focusing on a single cycle.
As far as the normative base for gas meters is concerned it has to be elaborated urgently because a considerable number of additional errors of gas volume measurement are not taken into account at present, which influences gas unbalances directly.
Another cause of gas unbalances during transportation in gas transportation systems is inaccurate determination of gas store in main pipelines and other gas pipelines.
Gas unbalances can also be caused by insufficient accuracy of defining production and technological gas losses and consumptions in gas transportation systems during exploitation of the systems.
Actual gas losses that are not taken into account can also cause gas unbalances during transportation in gas transportation systems.
Forces that show up at the spindle frequency include unbalance forces and the force of each tooth slicing away a "chip" of material.
The committees that created these standards recognized that unbalance could be detrimental to rotating assemblies and wanted to provide their knowledge to the manufacturing community.
At a higher rpm, the vibration control method is not practical because the formula yields very low (sometimes impractically low) allowable residual unbalance.