The conditioned stimulus may be a property or a by-product of the unconditioned stimulus
75 s represents the response to it; the solid line at 0 s is the unconditioned stimulus
onset time; and the large peak beginning at about +1.
The unconditioned stimulus
(UCS) is the stimulus which is not dependent on another stimulus.
The effect of two ways of devaluing the unconditioned stimulus
after first--and second-order appetitive conditioning.
Via imaging technique, researchers could see that some neurons were activated by the saccharine, or the conditioned stimulus, and the lithium chloride or the unconditioned stimulus
In the test phase, the CS is presented with an aversive unconditioned stimulus
The odor, as the conditioned stimulus, then becomes associated with the irritative symptoms of glutaraldehyde, the unconditioned stimulus
The importance of time encoding extends beyond habituation into classical conditioning where the time interval between a conditioned and unconditioned stimulus
appears to be encoded (Barnet, Grahame & Miller, 1993) and mechanisms of temporal encoding have been included in neural network models such as those of Buonomano & Mauk (1994) and Klopf, Morgan & Weaver (1993).
A possible explanation for these contradictory results may be found in the procedures used to determine contingency awareness between CS and unconditioned stimulus
In this way, the behavior displayed by each participant may have been respondent, as opposed to operant, and the preferred stimulus may have functioned as an unconditioned stimulus
This is similar to the usual result in Pavlovian conditioning studies, where responses similar to those elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
are conditioned to cues they have been repeatedly paired with (see Ayers & Powell, 2002, for a review).
tone or light) with an unconditioned stimulus