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The most common presentations are the presence of two scrotal masses, inguinal swelling, undescended testis, and torsion of the supernumerary testis.
Laparoscopy or surgical exploration of the abdomen is necessary for localization of the undescended testis, identification of testicular remnants, and confirmation of testicular agenesis.
Reported worldwide incidence of undescended testis varies considerably as a result of differing study populations and diagnostic criteria (Toppari and Kaleva 1999), although introduction of a standardized definition of maldescent (Scorer 1964), reproduced in large cohort studies (Berkowitz et al.
Although the relationship between orchidopexy and cryptorchidism is complex, we believe that our findings may reflect either an underlying decrease in the frequency of undescended testis or a marked improvement in the diagnosis of cryptorchidism--resulting in fewer orchidopexies performed for retractile testis--in Great Britain during the 1990s, or both.
To detect testicular disease, as with any case of undescended testis, orchiopexy is indicated after 12 months of age.
16] Patients with bilateral undescended testes have significantly lower sperm motility, sperm concentration, testicular volume and inhibin B levels, while showing higher FSH and LH levels than those with unilateral undescended testis.
The literature on undescended testis (UDT) mainly concentrates on the increased risks of infertility and development of germ cell tumours.