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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Developing your company's unique DNA profile will answer such questions as:
Rolling Stone's South American edition commissioned me to fly to Brazil and we worked in a studio there, using the unique DNA code from a lock of Elvis's hair from his personal barber Homer 'Gill' Gilleland.
The primers locate small groups of unique DNA of individual bacterial strains that are easily measured with qPCR.
Zinc finger (ZF) and transcription activator-like effector (TALE) based technologies are been allowing the tailored design of artificial DNA-binding proteins targeted to specific and unique DNA genomic sequences.
Since every person has unique DNA, the discovery of particular DNA evidence at a crime scene can help law enforcement determine who was involved in the crime.
Briefly, in biological reproduction, the genetic information contained in each parent's DNA combine to produce a unique individual with a unique DNA signature but still containing attributes (provided by the DNA) traceable to each of the parents.
A UNIQUE DNA marker is being applied to manhole covers to deter metal thieves who have swiped 900 grates from Birmingham streets in just six months.
It has a unique DNA so stone found with the marks on it can be traced back to where the thieves took it.
We plan to strengthen our core competencies and enhance the unique DNA on which Morgans was founded.
LG P210 recently won an iF (International Forum Design Award) and the P420 display's LG's unique DNA design.
Owners will be able to change the dynamic feel of the car with the unique DNA switch and enjoy the benefits of Alfa's Electronic Q2 differential and VDC (Vehicle Dynamic Control) system as well as enjoy power and economy from a choice of award-winning MultiAir petrol or MultiJet diesel engines.
In order to identify organisms with the made-from-scratch genome, researchers at the Venter Institute put four unique DNA sequences into the blueprint to serve as "watermarks.

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