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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Various strategies and technologies have been developed to identify unique DNA sequences.
Every species has a unique DNA sequence for certain genes (units of hereditary material).
Mulberry Fair is packaged with a clean, fresh look in predominantly white 1-litre Tetra Pak featuring the mulberry-bush graphic-style logo and a unique DNA friendly symbol to communicate the brand's antioxidant health benefits.
Publishers can assign rules of use to that unique DNA, such as how much can be copied, if a link back to the original content is required and on what terms advertising is permitted.
Applying the genetic information and association parameters of DNA through technology, which was recently discussed in two peer-reviewed scientific journals, Genomics and Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, The Cytokine Institute and associates at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago have proven the existence of unique DNA signatures (fingerprints) regarding chemicals which often have been at the heart of extensive insurance claims, workers' compensation-related issues and overall civil litigation.
Those cytokines have a unique DNA profile and only appear when the specific chemical caused particular cellular damage.
It contains a unique DNA which can identify individual properties and shows up under ultraviolet light.
The cars will also be fitted with Smart Water, which works by linking an item to its owner through a unique DNA code which is contained in a solution painted on property.
The second is a unique DNA binding column, specially designed to isolate plasmid DNA directly from bacterial growth media.
pylori strain from the family and from patients living in different geographic regions had its own, unique DNA sequence (15,22).
As a part of their work, the Livermore investigators designed copies of short unique DNA regions of S.

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