As a result, the majority of research in this area has focused on understanding ecological risk and protective factors, such as school-level interventions and peer-to-peer interactions, as a way to prevent victimization
for all students.
In order to prevent victimization
in children or treat any of its consequences, it is essential to have enough knowledge about the real prevalence of this kind of events during childhood and adolescence.
In particular, existing research does not clarify the extent to which cyberbullying overlaps with traditional bullying or other forms of victimization
that children might encounter in their schools, homes, and communities.
Moreover, the logistic regression analyses indicated that the usage frequency of online communication tools was a significant predictor of cyberbullying and victimization
for public school students in contrast to private school students.
Reports of lifetime exposure to violence were generally about one-third to one-half higher than reports from the past year, although the difference tended to be greater for less frequent and more severe types of victimization
2005a) suggested, the total number of different victimizations
is a more important predictor of negative outcomes than the presence of any particular type of victimization
He emphasized that, for the purposes of the study, a child who experienced many instances of physical abuse but no other forms of victimization
would be classified as having experienced only a single type of trauma.
Rates of bullying, victimization
, and critical incidents of violence in schools represent an important contemporary educational policy concern.
However, about a quarter of overall violent victimization
against teens and about one-third of the victimizations
against older teens were reported to the police from 1993 to 2003.
America's violent crime rate dropped nearly 15 percent last year -- the largest one-year decline ever recorded by the DOJ's National Crime Victimization
Survey, reports the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS).
are not randomly distributed in society, however.
Bullying or peer victimization
is traditionally defined as an aggressive, intentional act or behavior that is carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself (Olweus, 1993).