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Discrimination between vaccine and wild-type strains was reliable even at high concentrations of IVTs and full viral RNA in the range of 106 copies/reaction.
Complementation with the tolC-bearing plasmid had significant effect on increase invasion of [DELTA]tolC+, this is because may be multiple copy of tolC present at cytoplasmic level as compared to single tolC present in wild-type strain.
The mean proportion of parasitoid female offspring recorded from VIENNA 8 strain and from wild-type strain ranged between 32-68% and 47-52%, respectively.
The progenitor of both strains is a mutant with short conidiophores (cspA1, strain N402) of wild-type strain N400 (ATCC 9029).
In particular, C6 and P29 mutants were rapidly outcompeted by a wild-type strain in the absence of antibodies, and although they were able to overcome the wild-type virus in the presence of the K34C8 MAb, it was only after a slow process (Figure 2), indeed indicating a very low fitness.
In contrast to the wild-type strain 9117, these mutants aggregated in broth culture with chain lengths up to 4x longer than the wild type.
Evidence for transplacental transmission of the current wild-type strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle.
The primers consisted of a forward primer N1f (nt 517-534: 5'-GGGGCTGTG-GCTGTATTG-3') and reverse primer H274r (nt 759-784: 5'-GGATAA-CAGGAGCAYTCCTCATAGTG-3') for wild-type strain detection or Y274r (nt 759-784: 5'-GGATAACA-GGAGCAYTCCTCATAGTA-3') for mutant strain detection.
Moreover, to enhance safety, WHO has majorly urged new manufacturers to transform the source of inactivated virus from virulent wild-type strains to an attenuated strain, called after the polio vaccine pioneer Sabin.
A total of 20 wild-type strains of Lactobacillus previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy adult Landrace crossed with Large White pigs (Sus scrofa), were used in this study.
Thus, distinguishing the Oka vaccine strain from circulating wild-type strains is important to monitor potential VZV vaccine-related complications.
Controls in every test assay included blanks and wild-type strains, strains with one variation, and strains with both variations, as determined by sequencing.