Internal Revenue Code

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Internal Revenue Code

The Internal Revenue Code is the body of law that codifies all federal tax laws, including income, estate, gift, excise, alcohol, tobacco, and employment taxes. These laws constitute title 26 of the U.S. Code (26 U.S.C.A. § 1 et seq. [1986]) and are implemented by the Internal Revenue Service through its Treasury Regulations and Revenue Rulings.

Congress made major statutory changes to title 26 in 1939, 1954, and 1986. Because of the extensive revisions made in the tax reform act of 1986, title 26 is now known as the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (Pub. L. No. 99-514, § 2, 100 Stat. 2095 [Oct. 22, 1986]).

Subtitle A of the Code contains five chapters on income taxes. The chapters cover normal income taxes and surtaxes, taxes on self-employment income, withholding of taxes on nonresident Aliens and foreign corporations, taxes on transfers to avoid Income Tax, and consolidated returns.

Subtitle B deals with Estate and Gift Taxes. The rules and regulations concerning the taxation of probate estates and gifts are very complicated. This subtitle contains chapters on taxing generation-skipping transfers and rules on special valuation of property.

Subtitle C contains the law of employment taxes. It consists of chapters on general provisions relating to employment taxes and other sections dealing with federal insurance contributions, railroad retirement taxes, and federal unemployment taxes.

Subtitle D covers miscellaneous excise taxes. Its fifteen chapters cover a variety of issues, including retail excise taxes, manufacturers' excise taxes, taxes on wagering, environmental taxes, public charities, private foundations, Pension plans, and certain group health plans.

Subtitle E covers alcohol, tobacco, and other excise taxes. Chapter 53 deals with machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms.

Subtitle F contains provisions on procedure and administration. Under this subtitle are twenty chapters that deal with every step of the taxation process, from the setting of filing dates and the collection of penalties for late filing, to criminal offenses and judicial proceedings. The rules for administrative proceedings under the Code are addressed in the appendix to title 26.

Subtitle G addresses the organization of the Congressional Joint Committee on Taxation. Subtitle H contains the rules for the financing of presidential election campaigns. Subtitle I contains the Trust Fund Code.

The Internal Revenue Code has grown steadily since the 1930s. The complexity of its provisions, most of which are written in technical language, has required law and accounting firms to develop specialists in the various areas of taxation.

Cross-references

Election Campaign Financing.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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2085 (1986) (codified as amended at 26 U.S.C. [section] 42 (2000)).
(22) See generally 26 U.S.C. [section] 170(h) (2000) (providing
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881 authorizes the attorney general to pay rewards for "information which leads to the arrest and conviction of a person who kills or kidnaps a Federal drug law enforcement agent"; 26 U.S.C. ??
The statutory basis for engaging a qualified appraiser is reinforced by 26 U.S.C. [sections]6662(h), which provides a stiff penalty for underpayment of taxes.
this same requirement arises from the rule of 26 U.S.C. 7206 that only a willful tax evasion is criminal."
The plaintiffs paid income taxes on the punitive damages but later sought a refund, claiming 26 U.S.C. [sections]104(a)(2) exempted them from federal income tax.
United States,(1) the United States Supreme Court held that 26 U.S.C. [sections] 5861(d)(2) requires mens rea.(3) Specifically, the Court, reversing the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, ruled that the Government was required to prove that the petitioner, Harold E.
The Massachusetts Democrat made his request under 26 U.S.C. 6103(f) of the Code for the Internal Revenue Service, which states that upon written request from a chair of that committee or chair of the parallel Senate committee, the Department of Treasury, which oversees the IRS, "shall furnish the tax return of any individual."
(6) 26 U.S.C. [section]197 (1994); see also Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub L.
Freedom From Religion Foundation ("FFRF") claims that a longstanding tax code exemption for religious housing, 26 U.S.C. 107(2) of the Internal Revenue Code, violates the Establishment Clause.
However, a religious organization must conform to certain provisions contained in 26 U.S.C. [section] 501(c)(3) in order to qualify for tax-exempt status: (1) None of the religious organization's earnings may "inure[] to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual"; (2) the religious organization may not have a "substantial part of [its] activities" dedicated to influencing legislation; and (3) the religious organization may not participate in any political campaign in support of or in opposition to a candidate for public office.