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bar

1) n. collectively all attorneys, as "the bar," which comes from the bar or railing which separates the general spectator area of the courtroom from the area reserved for judges, attorneys, parties and court officials. A party to a case or criminal defendant is "before the bar" when he/she is inside the railing. 2) v. to prevent some legal maneuver, as in "barring" a lawsuit due to the running of the time to file. 3) to prohibit and keep someone from entering a room, building, or real property.

bar

1 the area in a court of law separating the part reserved for the bench and Queen's Counsel from the area occupied by junior barristers, solicitors, and the general public.
2 the place in a court of law where the accused stands during his trial.
3 the professional body of pleaders before the High Courts in England: BARRISTERS.
4 in Parliamentary procedure, in the House of Lords and House of Commons, the boundary where nonmembers wishing to address either House appear and where persons are arraigned.
5 a plea showing that a plaintiff has no cause of action, as when the case has already been adjudicated upon or the time allowed for bringing the action has passed or through his actions the claimant can be said to have given up his claim.

BAR, actions. A perpetual destruction or temporary taking away of the action of the plaintiff. In ancient authors it is called exceptio peremptorid. Co. Litt. 303 b Steph. Pl. Appx. xxviii. Loisel (Institutes Coutumieres, vol. ii. p. 204) says, "Exceptions (in pleas) have been called bars by our ancient practitioners, because, being opposed, they arrest the party who has sued out the process, as in war (une barriere) a barrier arrests an enemy; and as there have always been in our tribunals bars to separate the advocates from the judges, the place where the advocates stand (pour parler) when they speak, has been called for that reason (barreau) the bar."
     2. When a person is bound in any action, real or personal, by judgment on demurrer, confession or verdict, he is barred, i. e. debarred, as to that or any other action of the like nature or degree, for the same thing, forever; for expedit reipublicae ut sit finis litim.
     3. But there is a difference between real and personal actions.
     4. In personal actions, as in debt or account, the bar is perpetual, inasmuch as the plaintiff cannot have an action of a higher nature, and therefore in such actions he has generally no remedy, but by bringing a writ of error. Doct. Plac. 65; 6 Co. 7, 8 4 East, 507, 508.
     5. But if the defendant be barred in a real action, by judgment on a verdict, demurrer or confession, &c., he may still have an action of a higher nature, and try the same right again. Lawes, Pl. 39, 40. See generally, Bac. Ab. Abatement, N; Plea in bar. Also the case of Outram v. Morewood, 3 East, Rep. 346-366; a leading case on this subject.

BAR, practice. A place in a court where the counsellors and advocates stand to make their addresses to the court and jury; it is so called because formerly it was closed with a bar. Figuratively the counsellors and attorneys at law are called the bar of Philadelphia, the New York bar.
     2. A place in a court having criminal jurisdiction, to which prisoners are called to plead to the indictment, is also called, the bar. Vide Merl. Repert. mot Barreau, and Dupin, Profession d'Avocat, tom. i. p. 451, for some eloquent advice to gentlemen of the bar.

BAR, contracts. An obstacle or opposition. 2. Some bars arise from circumstances, and others from persons. Kindred within the prohibited degree, for example, is a bar to a marriage between the persons related; but the fact that A is married, and cannot therefore marry B, is a circumstance which operates as a bar as long as it subsists; for without it the parties might marry.

References in periodicals archive ?
The most prevalent ADRB2 haplotype was Gly16;Glu27 (45.1%) and it was used as a reference in haplotype-based association analysis.
Of all the low-penetrance genes that are linked with asthma, either directly or indirectly, ADRb2 holds the promise of personalised therapy for asthma.
The horse ADRB2 gene sequences were obtained from both whole genome sequencing and RNA-seq (Park et al., 2012).
(1) If they evaluated the relationship between ADRB2 Arg16Gly polymorphism and fixed dose ICS-LABAs combination treatment in asthma
The asthma group had significantly higher frequencies of MS4A2 C109T T/T (OR = 1.961, 95%CI = 1.31-2.94), and ADRB2 R16G A/A (OR = 2.575, 95%CI = 1.66-3.99) than the control group.
We have previously described a noncontinuous probe that spans 3 loci of the ADRB2 gene and determines the 3 main haplotypes of the gene (22).
Western blot analysis was performed to assess the cellular expression levels of ADRB1, ADRB2, AT1R, and [beta]-actin in EPCs.
Twelve genes were selected from among genotyped MESA candidate genes: ACE, ADRB2, AGT, AGTR1, ALOX15, EDN1, GRK4, PTGS1, PTGS2, TLR4, VEGFA, and VEGFB.
We first demonstrated the reliability of our BAMPER method on three SNPs (rs3918242 for the gelatinase B gene, rs1346044 for the WRN gene, and rs1042718 for the ADRB2 gene), using hundreds of purified genomic DNA study samples.
However, a previous study evaluating the combined effects of air pollutants and ADRB2 in children did not report significant findings (Melen et al.
ADRB2 is transcribed from an intronless gene on chromosome 5q32 that encodes a 413-residue protein with 7 transmembrane domains (2).