That is not to say that chromatin-remodeling genes and genes of the ubiquitin ligase complex are not also perturbed in the endometrioid subtype; indeed, a number of chromatin-remodeling genes, such as ARID1A, ARID5B, CTCF, and CHD4, are also causal or candidate driver genes in molecular subgroups dominated by endometrioid endometrial tumors (Table 1).
ARID1A loss is prevalent in endometrial hyperplasia with atypia and low-grade endometrioid carcinomas.
With more than 100,000 new cases worldwide of stomach cancer each year likely to be caused by mutations in FAT4 or ARID1A
, drugs against these targets may someday lead to more effective treatment of stomach tumours and other cancers.
The ARID1A and PPP2R1A genes had not previously been linked to ovarian cancer, and the findings "may provide opportunities for developing new biomarkers and therapies that target those genes," Sian Jones, Ph.
The researchers speculated that ARID1A functions as a tumor suppressor gene and, when mutated, is "likely to directly lead to epigenetic changes in cancer cells.