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Bisyllabic adpositions form phonological words on their own, while monosyllabic adpositions are integrated into the phonological word of their lexical head.
b) Lack of a large contrastive set of adpositions or local cases, requiring topological spatial information to be signaled in the verb;
expression of grammatical relations by means of the adposition peraan); however, there is also a counterexample, e.
unlike adverbs and adpositions, word forms with the Om+stO formative can take definite singular declination, which indicates a notion of reference, something associated with nouns.
A characteristic of the adpositional constructions in the journalistic texts of the 1890s is that information is presented as rumour; by using substantive as a modifier of the adposition, (kuuld 0, (36), teade (37)) the actual source of information remains vague.
If a language has an ON-TOP adposition, then it also has an ON adposition, for instance.
In this paper we apply the concept of Force Dynamics in an analysis of Finnish near-synonymous adpositional constructions that involve the path adposition lapi 'through', and argue that these constructions show differences in the degree of force dynamics they indicate in actual usage.
45) Again, not all of them can easily be explained away as verb-preverb complexes, although the fact that what seems to be an adposition precedes the noun instead of following it is very troubling:
In a sense, type 8 languages are like type 5 languages (Estonian, Hungarian), the only difference being that the former employ a verb to lexicalize the Source and Goal heads and a case marker or adposition to lexicalize a Place head, while the latter make use exclusively of case markers (or adpositions) to spell out all three heads.
It is often assumed that the information on the topological relation between a Figure and a Ground in a BLC is contained in adpositions or relational nouns (cf.
It speaks to the significance of Mayan languages having large form classes of dispositional roots in general, and to the significance of Tzeltal speakers using dispositional stative predicates in their BLC in particular: it is not the case that Mayan languages in general and Tzeltal in particular use dispositionals to encode the information that other languages package in adpositions or case markers.
Discussions of applicatives frequently treat them as "advancement" strategies whereby an oblique or adjunct NP is promoted to direct argument status, in absence of any oblique case or adposition.