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If a language has an ON-TOP adposition, then it also has an ON adposition, for instance.
In a sense, type 8 languages are like type 5 languages (Estonian, Hungarian), the only difference being that the former employ a verb to lexicalize the Source and Goal heads and a case marker or adposition to lexicalize a Place head, while the latter make use exclusively of case markers (or adpositions) to spell out all three heads.
45) Again, not all of them can easily be explained away as verb-preverb complexes, although the fact that what seems to be an adposition precedes the noun instead of following it is very troubling:
For instance, a:bu:tan 1 'on, about, around, on the outside, round about' is an adposition and a:bu:tan 2 'about, nearly', an adverb.
More specifically, we aim at defining the lexical categories Noun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, and Adposition in such a way that: (i) the explanatory (semantic) requisites for the definition of the domains of the layered structure of the clause are satisfied; (ii) the descriptive (morphological) requisites for the definition of the lexical items of a dynamic functional lexicon are satisfied.
However, it could well be that the beginnings of the functional shift of the adposition peraan from the sphere of spatial relations to that of government were present also language-internally; for this reason this change possibly cannot be regarded as a leap (Kolehmainen, Nordlund 2011).
A Typological, Historical, and Functional Study of Adpositions in the Languages of the World.
In either series the indicated adposition (8) is harmonious with the following units in the same line.
B) The elative forms will be inspected for compatibility with the three Erzya declination types, indefinite, possessive and determiner, whereas determiner declination is not attested for adverbs and adpositions.
An adessive noun can be replaced by an adpositional phrase whose main word is adposition jargi and kohaselt, e.