Reports in the literature have demonstrated that the pathological mechanisms involved in the development of affective disorders
are mediated by numerous neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate (16).
Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the changes of HAMD-17, HAMA, SHAPS, and BDI scores over time between depressed patients who did and did not have a family history of affective disorders
. Comparisons of scores between the two groups of patients at each specific time were made using t-tests.
These misconceptions, Roecklein said, play a significant role in sleep cognition for those with seasonal affective disorder
Most of these studies and our study confirm that co morbidity between substance use disorders and Bipolar affective disorder
is common and symptoms of dually diagnosed patients tend to be more severe and refractory to treatment.
Chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) in affective disorders
. Psychol Med.
A lack of vitamin D caused by reduced sunlight has long been believed to cause Seasonal Affective Disorder
The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for identifying seasonal affective disorders
. Journal of Affective Disorders
, 41, 193-199.
Family data, such as those discussed later in this article, so far have not been entirely consistent with any single hypothesis but have suggested that several mechanisms may contribute to the relationship between alcoholism and affective disorders
. Nevertheless, such analyses have confirmed that an association between alcoholism and affective disorders
exists and that this association is at least partly mediated by genetic factors.
Research on affective disorders
in childhood and adolescence has appeared with increasing frequency in the psychiatric and pediatric literature.
Similarly, the utilization area includes measures of hospital discharges, encounters, readmissions of patients with prior hospitalization for affective disorders
, etc., and each measure is defined so that the data obtained across health care organizations will be comparable.
, particularly depression, can adversely influence cognitive functioning.